Next Article in Journal
Diversity of Leaf Stomatal Traits among Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner Genotypes
Previous Article in Journal
Connecting the Lab and the Field: Genome Analysis of Phyllobacterium and Rhizobium Strains and Field Performance on Two Vegetable Crops
Previous Article in Special Issue
Soil Enzymatic Activities and Microbial Community Structure in Soils Polluted with Tetracycline Antibiotics
Article

Accelerated Dissipation of Two Herbicides after Repeated Application in Field Experiments with Organically-Amended Soil

Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Salamanca (IRNASA-CSIC), Cordel de Merinas 40–52, 37008 Salamanca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Enrique Eymar, Carlos García Delgado and Connor Ferguson
Agronomy 2021, 11(6), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061125
Received: 22 March 2021 / Revised: 28 April 2021 / Accepted: 27 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Healthy in Agro-ecosystems)
Organic wastes applied as composted amendments may improve the quality of degraded soils and modify the fate of pesticides. This work has set out to study the dissipation kinetics of the herbicides chlorotoluron and flufenacet during their second-year application in field experimental plots with a sandy-loam agricultural soil without amendment (S) and amended with spent mushroom substrate (S + SMS) or green compost (S + GC). The SMS and GC were applied to the soil during the previous winter’s wheat crop campaign (1 year before the second herbicide application) at rates of 140 and 85 t ha−1 (dry weight basis), respectively. The experiment involved randomized complete blocks with plots of 81 m2, including three replicates per soil treatment. Surface soils were sampled after herbicide application for 225 days, and herbicide residues in the soil samples were determined by HPLC-MS. The dissipation curves of both herbicides for the three soil treatments were better fitted to the first order multi-compartment (FOMC) kinetic model. The dissipation rates of the most hydrophobic herbicide, flufenacet, were slower than those for chlorotoluron in both unamended and amended soils. The half-life (DT50) values ranged between 20.7 to 41.1 days for chlorotoluron, and 42.9 to 75.6 days for flufenacet, and they followed the order S > S + SMS > S + GC. The DT50 values of chlorotoluron were close for S + SMS and S + GC, and the DT50 of flufenacet for S was similar to that for S + SMS. These DT50 values decreased up to four times with respect to those calculated after the first application indicating an accelerated dissipation of the herbicides after the second application especially in amended soil in comparison with unamended soil. The persistence of chlorotoluron and flufenacet in an agricultural soil was modified by the effect of the organic amendments, weather conditions, and possibly the repeated application of the compounds under real field conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorotoluron; flufenacet; commercial formulation; repeated application; soil; spent mushroom substrate; green compost; accelerated dissipation; field plot chlorotoluron; flufenacet; commercial formulation; repeated application; soil; spent mushroom substrate; green compost; accelerated dissipation; field plot
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Carpio, M.J.; Marín-Benito, J.M.; Sánchez-Martín, M.J.; Rodríguez-Cruz, M.S. Accelerated Dissipation of Two Herbicides after Repeated Application in Field Experiments with Organically-Amended Soil. Agronomy 2021, 11, 1125. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061125

AMA Style

Carpio MJ, Marín-Benito JM, Sánchez-Martín MJ, Rodríguez-Cruz MS. Accelerated Dissipation of Two Herbicides after Repeated Application in Field Experiments with Organically-Amended Soil. Agronomy. 2021; 11(6):1125. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061125

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carpio, María J., Jesús M. Marín-Benito, María J. Sánchez-Martín, and M. S. Rodríguez-Cruz 2021. "Accelerated Dissipation of Two Herbicides after Repeated Application in Field Experiments with Organically-Amended Soil" Agronomy 11, no. 6: 1125. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11061125

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop