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Article

Yield Enhancement of Biostimulants, Vitamin B12, and CoQ10 Compared to Inorganic Fertilizer in Radish

1
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences & Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
2
School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Youssef Rouphael and Giuseppe Colla
Agronomy 2021, 11(4), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040697
Received: 1 March 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 3 April 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
Two pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the response of radish crops against different plant growth regulators, biostimulants, and leaf extracts at Yale University, USA. The first experiment examined the marginal effect of vitamin B12 when added to the Berlyn Laboratory’s proprietary biostimulant formula (GPB Core). Increasing concentrations of vitamin B12 were added, as investigated in groups SL (0 mg/L), SB1 (0.5 mg/L), SB2 (1.0 mg/L), and SB3 (1.5 mg/L). The addition of vitamin B12 conferred no significant incremental benefit over the GPB Core. However, the GPB Core formula (SL) increased fresh shoot biomass by 172.9%, dry shoot biomass by 136.4%, fresh root biomass by 64.7%, and dry root biomass by 29.1% over plant treated with inorganic fertilizer alone (p < 0.01). The second experiment examined the combined marginal effect of vitamin B12 and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) when added to the GPB Core. The three experimental groups included the GPB Core plus inorganic fertilizer (S+); GPB Core, vitamin B12, CoQ10, and inorganic fertilizer (SBQ+); and GPB Core, vitamin B12, CoQ10, and no inorganic fertilizer (SBQ0). SBQ0 outperformed the inorganic fertilizer control in fresh shoot, dry shoot, fresh root, and dry root biomass by 190.3%, 127.1%, 128.5%, and 41.3%, respectively (p < 0.01), indicating that inorganic fertilizer can be replaced by biostimulants while simultaneously increasing yield. Additionally, the differences between SBQ+ and SBQ0 in the biomass metrics were statistically insignificant, indicating that in the presence of biostimulants, inorganic fertilizers confer a slight marginal benefit. There was no evidence, however, that the addition of CoQ10 and vitamin B12 conferred benefits over S+. Overall, the application of biostimulants statistically significantly improves radish biomass. Both experiments indicate that under low stress conditions, biostimulants can replace inorganic fertilizer while simultaneously increasing yield. View Full-Text
Keywords: radish; biostimulants; plant growth regulators; B12; CoQ10 radish; biostimulants; plant growth regulators; B12; CoQ10
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rehim, A.; Amjad Bashir, M.; Raza, Q.-U.-A.; Gallagher, K.; Berlyn, G.P. Yield Enhancement of Biostimulants, Vitamin B12, and CoQ10 Compared to Inorganic Fertilizer in Radish. Agronomy 2021, 11, 697. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040697

AMA Style

Rehim A, Amjad Bashir M, Raza Q-U-A, Gallagher K, Berlyn GP. Yield Enhancement of Biostimulants, Vitamin B12, and CoQ10 Compared to Inorganic Fertilizer in Radish. Agronomy. 2021; 11(4):697. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040697

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rehim, Abdur, Muhammad Amjad Bashir, Qurat-Ul-Ain Raza, Kevin Gallagher, and Graeme P. Berlyn 2021. "Yield Enhancement of Biostimulants, Vitamin B12, and CoQ10 Compared to Inorganic Fertilizer in Radish" Agronomy 11, no. 4: 697. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11040697

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