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Genotype by Environment Interaction Analysis of Agronomic Spring Barley Traits in Iceland Using AMMI, Factorial Regression Model and Linear Mixed Model

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Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural University of Iceland, Hvanneyri, 311 Borgarbyggð, Iceland
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Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas (CBGP, UPM-INIA), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM)—Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Campus de Montegancedo-UPM, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2021, 11(3), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030499
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 2 March 2021 / Accepted: 3 March 2021 / Published: 7 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Crop Breeding and Genetics)
Spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most important cereal in Iceland and its national breeding program aims to select barley genotypes adapted to its environment. A critical step to understand the adaptation of Nordic barley material to a cool maritime climate is to assess the genotype by environment interaction (GxE). In this study, we evaluated the yield and thousand-kernel weight (TKW) of 32 spring barley genotypes in seven Icelandic environments. We applied three methods to analyze GxE: the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model, a factorial model, and a linear mixed model. For yield, GxE was mainly caused by a better response of six-row genotypes compared to two-row genotypes in high fertility soils. For TKW, GxE showed a pattern along a gradient of daily mean temperatures. This pattern translated into a divergent TKW response between the 2-row and 6-row genotypes, with substantial crossovers along the temperature gradient. This GxE pattern was disentangled using all three methods, illustrating the value of cross-analysis. As yield is the main trait of interest for barley cultivation in Iceland, and few crossovers of genotype performance have been observed between environments, the definition of one mega-environment was recommended for Icelandic cultivation and breeding. We identified promising genetic material for both traits and highlighted the superiority of six-row genotypes for yield. View Full-Text
Keywords: barley; genotype-by-environment; breeding; yield; thousand kernel weight; cross-validation barley; genotype-by-environment; breeding; yield; thousand kernel weight; cross-validation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hilmarsson, H.S.; Rio, S.; Sánchez, J.I.y. Genotype by Environment Interaction Analysis of Agronomic Spring Barley Traits in Iceland Using AMMI, Factorial Regression Model and Linear Mixed Model. Agronomy 2021, 11, 499. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030499

AMA Style

Hilmarsson HS, Rio S, Sánchez JIy. Genotype by Environment Interaction Analysis of Agronomic Spring Barley Traits in Iceland Using AMMI, Factorial Regression Model and Linear Mixed Model. Agronomy. 2021; 11(3):499. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030499

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hilmarsson, Hrannar S., Simon Rio, and Julio I.y. Sánchez 2021. "Genotype by Environment Interaction Analysis of Agronomic Spring Barley Traits in Iceland Using AMMI, Factorial Regression Model and Linear Mixed Model" Agronomy 11, no. 3: 499. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11030499

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