# Modelling the Kinetics of Color and Texture Changes of Dabai (Canarium odontophyllum Miq.) during Blanching

^{1}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Plant Materials and Their Preparation

#### 2.2. Blanching

#### 2.3. Color Analysis

#### 2.4. Texture Analysis

^{−1}was made on each sample. Force formation curves were recorded, and firmness was observed by reading the area under the curves and the slope newton (N/mm). The analysis was conducted in triplicate.

#### 2.5. Mathematical Models and Kinetics Analysis for Color and Texture of Blenched Dabai Fruits

_{0}), the x axis is the duration of blanching in minutes (t), and the slope of the graph is determined as the kinetic reaction rate.

_{0}), the x axis is determined as the duration of blanching in minutes (t), and the slope of the graph is identified as the kinetic reaction rate in (−k).

_{eq})/(P

_{0}− P

_{eq}), the x axis is identified as the duration of blanching in minutes (t), and the slope is identified as the kinetic reaction rate (−k) [18]:

#### 2.6. Statistical Analysis

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Mathematical Model and Kinetic Analysis for Color of Blenched Dabai Fruit

^{2}) of the zero-order kinetic model, first-order kinetic model and fractional conversion order model, of changes of color parameter (a*, b*, C and TCD) of blanched Dabai fruit, respectively.

^{2}) of the a* parameter fitted into zero-order (0.853–0.989) and fractional conversion (0.876–0.931) models, proving that both models described the a* value changes well.

^{2}was between 0.912 and 0.978, 0.916 and 0.984, and 0.841 and 0.980, respectively. High coefficient determination (R

^{2}) for the three models proved that the b* parameter changes were well fitted to them. These findings were similar to findings of other literature using various samples where the b* parameter greatly fit the zero, first, and fractional first-order kinetic models [7,18,19].

^{2}) for the chroma parameter ranged from 0.961 to 0.986, 0.935 to 0.979, and 0.899 to 0.956, for zero, first, and fractional conversion order, respectively. The high R

^{2}indicated the high suitability of changes of parameter chroma with increasing temperature and time, during blanching. The increasing kinetic reaction rates for the chroma showing the color saturation of Dabai fruit was greatly influenced by the blanching temperature. The vividness or saturation of color occurred as the temperature and duration of blanching treatment increased [20,21,22].

^{2}described the changes of TCD due to blanching, which was in the range of 0.750 to 0.961, 0.866 to 0.982, and 0.816 to 0.913, for zero, first and fractional conversion order model, respectively. The high R

^{2}translated to well-described TCD changes of the model. Thus, the three models—zero, first, and fractional conversion model—described the changes of TCD of Dabai fruit due to blanching.

#### 3.2. Mathematical Model and Kinetic Analysis for Texture of Blenched Dabai Fruit

^{2}) for the firmness of Dabai fruit is shown in Table 2 for zero-order as between 0.712 to 0.810, and for first-order as in the range of 0.692 to 0.774. The zero-order model explained 71% to 81% of the variability in the outcome data, while 69% to 77% of the variability in the outcome data was explained by the first-order model. However, the changes of firmness did not fit in both zero-order and first-order models, as can be seen in Figure 5 and Figure 6. This was due to the non-significant changes of firmness between all temperatures and duration of blanching, based on the results in Table 2.

#### 3.3. Activation Energy Analysis

^{2}) of the kinetic models (zero, first, and fractional conversion) according to the changes of color parameters (a*, b*, C, and TCD) and texture (firmness) of Dabai fruit due to blanching.

## 4. Conclusions

^{2}: 0.853–0.989) and fractional conversion order modelling (R

^{2}: 0.876–0.931). Furthermore, changes of b* parameter were well fitted with zero- (R

^{2}: 0.912–0.931), first- (R

^{2}: 0.916–0.984), and fractional conversion order (R

^{2}: 0.902–0.984) models. The C parameter fitted well with zero- (R

^{2}: 0.961–0.989), first- (R

^{2}: 0.935–0.979) and fractional conversion order (R

^{2}: 0.899–0.956), while changes of TCD parameter were well fitted with zero- (R

^{2}: 0.750–0.956) and first-order (R

^{2}: 0.855–0.982). For kinetic modelling of texture changes, the change of firmness did not well fit with zero- (R

^{2}: 0.712–0.810) and first-order (R

^{2}: 0.692–0.794). This data and information will increase the knowledge impacting consumer food selection, and enhance the ability to find the right blanching conditions for thermal processing Dabai fruits in the future.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Zero-order kinetic model of the effect of blanching (60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 °C) on the color parameters of Dabai fruit: (

**a**) a*, (

**b**) b*, (

**c**) chroma and (

**d**) TDC.

**Figure 3.**First-order kinetic model of the effect of blanching (60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 °C) on the color parameters of Dabai fruit: (

**a**) b*, (

**b**) chroma, and (

**c**) TDC.

**Figure 4.**Fractional first-order kinetic model of the effect of blanching (60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 °C) on the color parameters of Dabai fruit: (

**a**) a*, (

**b**) b*, (

**c**) chroma and (

**d**) TDC.

**Figure 5.**Zero-order kinetic model of the effect of blanching (60, 70, 80,90 and 100 °C) on the firmness of Dabai fruit.

**Figure 6.**First-order kinetic model of the effect of blanching (60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 °C) on the firmness of Dabai fruit.

**Table 1.**The reaction rate (k) and coefficient of determination (R

^{2}) of the zero-order kinetic model, first-order kinetic model and fractional conversion order kinetic model of changes of color parameter (a*, b*, C and TCD) of Dabai fruit, due to blanching.

Parameter | Temperature (℃) | k | R^{2} | |
---|---|---|---|---|

a* | Zero-order | 60 | 0.532 | 0.989 |

70 | 1.189 | 0.853 | ||

80 | 5.604 | 0.986 | ||

90 | 7.874 | 0.979 | ||

100 | 7.983 | 0.980 | ||

Fractional conversion-order | 60 | 0.003 | 0.915 | |

70 | 0.001 | 0.931 | ||

80 | 0.005 | 0.876 | ||

90 | 0.005 | 0.923 | ||

100 | 0.005 | 0.908 | ||

b* | Zero-order | 60 | −0.025 | 0.978 |

70 | −0.037 | 0.972 | ||

80 | −0.071 | 0.912 | ||

90 | −0.085 | 0.934 | ||

100 | −0.108 | 0.965 | ||

First-order | 60 | −0.0004 | 0.984 | |

70 | −0.0005 | 0.965 | ||

80 | −0.001 | 0.902 | ||

90 | −0.0011 | 0.916 | ||

100 | −0.0013 | 0.948 | ||

Fractional conversion-order | 60 | 0.003 | 0.915 | |

70 | 0.001 | 0.931 | ||

80 | 0.005 | 0.876 | ||

90 | 0.005 | 0.923 | ||

100 | 0.005 | 0.908 | ||

C | Zero-order | 60 | −0.037 | 0.977 |

70 | −0.071 | 0.961 | ||

80 | −0.242 | 0.989 | ||

90 | −0.349 | 0.981 | ||

100 | −0.366 | 0.986 | ||

First-order | 60 | −0.0007 | 0.979 | |

70 | −0.0009 | 0.935 | ||

80 | −0.0023 | 0.971 | ||

90 | −0.0028 | 0.958 | ||

100 | −0.0029 | 0.964 | ||

Fractional-conversion order | 60 | 0.004 | 0.946 | |

70 | 0.002 | 0.956 | ||

80 | 0.005 | 0.899 | ||

90 | 0.004 | 0.920 | ||

100 | 0.005 | 0.923 | ||

TCD | Zero-order | 60 | −0.485 | 0.961 |

70 | −0.309 | 0.750 | ||

80 | −0.356 | 0.931 | ||

90 | −0.315 | 0.889 | ||

100 | −0.292 | 0.906 | ||

First-order | 60 | −0.0034 | 0.982 | |

70 | −0.0026 | 0.866 | ||

80 | −0.0029 | 0.907 | ||

90 | −0.0028 | 0.855 | ||

100 | −0.0026 | 0.879 | ||

Fractional conversion-order | 60 | 0.004 | 0.816 | |

70 | 0.001 | 0.900 | ||

80 | 0.008 | 0.874 | ||

90 | 0.007 | 0.908 | ||

100 | 0.007 | 0.913 |

**Table 2.**The reaction rate (k) and coefficient of determination (R

^{2}) of the zero-order kinetic model, first-order kinetic model and fractional conversion order model, of changes of firmness of Dabai fruit due to blanching.

Parameter | Kinetic Model | Temperature (℃) | k | R^{2} |
---|---|---|---|---|

Firmness | Zero-order | 60 | 0.0006 | 0.712 |

70 | 0.001 | 0.757 | ||

80 | 0.0011 | 0.788 | ||

90 | 0.0011 | 0.784 | ||

100 | 0.094 | 0.810 | ||

First-order | 60 | 0.0007 | 0.692 | |

70 | 0.0014 | 0.732 | ||

80 | 0.0016 | 0.774 | ||

90 | 0.0016 | 0.767 | ||

100 | 0.0027 | 0.794 |

**Table 3.**The activation energy and coefficient of determination (R

^{2}) of the kinetic models (zero, first, and fractional conversion) according to the changes of color parameters (a*, b*, C, and TCD) and texture (firmness) of Dabai fruit due to blanching.

Kinetic Models | Parameter | Ea (kJ/mol) | R^{2} |
---|---|---|---|

Zero | a* | 1.105 | 0.889 |

b* | 39.117 | 0.963 | |

C | 62.273 | 0.904 | |

TCD | 13.419 | 0.986 | |

First | b* | 32.761 | 0.923 |

C | 3.479 | 0.993 | |

TCD | 6.792 | 0.989 | |

Fractional Conversion | a* | 27.343 | 0.710 |

b* | 18.076 | 0.837 | |

C | 10.744 | 0.892 | |

TCD | 6.688 | 0.742 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Shamsudin, R.; Ariffin, S.H.; Zainol @ Abdullah, W.N.Z.; Azmi, N.S.; Abdul Halim, A.A.
Modelling the Kinetics of Color and Texture Changes of Dabai (*C**anarium odontophyllum Miq.)* during Blanching. *Agronomy* **2021**, *11*, 2185.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112185

**AMA Style**

Shamsudin R, Ariffin SH, Zainol @ Abdullah WNZ, Azmi NS, Abdul Halim AA.
Modelling the Kinetics of Color and Texture Changes of Dabai (*C**anarium odontophyllum Miq.)* during Blanching. *Agronomy*. 2021; 11(11):2185.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112185

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Shamsudin, Rosnah, Siti Hajar Ariffin, Wan Nor Zanariah Zainol @ Abdullah, Nazatul Shima Azmi, and Arinah Adila Abdul Halim.
2021. "Modelling the Kinetics of Color and Texture Changes of Dabai (*C**anarium odontophyllum Miq.)* during Blanching" *Agronomy* 11, no. 11: 2185.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112185