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Article

Profile of Semiquinone Radicals, Phytohormones and Sugars in Pistacia vera L. cv. Kirmizi Development

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Department of Plant Physiology, Faculty of Agronomy, Horticulture and Bioengineering, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wołyńska 35, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
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Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań, Poland
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Chair of Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 9, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
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Department of Mathematical and Statistical Methods, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznań, Poland
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Department of Horticulture, University of Çukurova, 01330 Adana, Turkey
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Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences-SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
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Department of Dendrology and Nursery, Faculty of Agronomy, Horticulture and Bioengineering, Dąbrowskiego 159, 60-594 Poznań, Poland
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Research Unit “Induced Resistance and Plant Bioprotection”, UPRES EA 4707, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Reims, P.O. Box 1039, CEDEX 02, 51687 Reims, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José M. Palma
Agronomy 2021, 11(11), 2115; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112115
Received: 18 September 2021 / Revised: 16 October 2021 / Accepted: 19 October 2021 / Published: 22 October 2021
The main aim of this study was to investigate metabolic responses of fruits, leaves, and shoots of pistachio trees (Pistacia vera L. cv. Kirmizi) during their development. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed significant increase in generation of semiquinone radicals in fruits and leaves of pistachio, while the flower cluster thinning application was conducted in relation to the control; especially at the second term of the plant material collection. Moreover, flower abscission caused an increase in the level of phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in fruits at the first term of fruits sampling. In turn, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed differences both in the profile as well as the contents of soluble sugars detected in pistachio organs. The highest total sugar content was found in fruits of pistachio where the flower cluster thinning application was made early. Total sugar levels were higher also in leaves and shoots of the above-mentioned pistachio plants in relation to the control until the third sampling time. The importance of high levels of fructose in the fruits following the flower abscission was observed. Additionally, analyses of mineral elements in organs showed that copper and phosphorus contents in fruits were higher after the flower abscission in relation to the control. To conclude, our findings signal on contribution of semiquinone radicals, paramagnetic manganese ions, phytohormones, nutrients, and sugars in pistachio organs development on the background of the flower cluster thinning which was applied before fructification. View Full-Text
Keywords: electron paramagnetic resonance; pistachio; phytohormones; semiquinone radicals and paramagnetic centers; sugars electron paramagnetic resonance; pistachio; phytohormones; semiquinone radicals and paramagnetic centers; sugars
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morkunas, I.; Doğu, M.Z.; Woźniak, A.; Bednarski, W.; Kęsy, J.; Bocianowski, J.; Atar, Ş.H.; Ürün, İ.D.; Labudda, M.; Zydlik, Z.; Kafkas, N.E.; Kafkas, S.; Jeandet, P. Profile of Semiquinone Radicals, Phytohormones and Sugars in Pistacia vera L. cv. Kirmizi Development. Agronomy 2021, 11, 2115. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112115

AMA Style

Morkunas I, Doğu MZ, Woźniak A, Bednarski W, Kęsy J, Bocianowski J, Atar ŞH, Ürün İD, Labudda M, Zydlik Z, Kafkas NE, Kafkas S, Jeandet P. Profile of Semiquinone Radicals, Phytohormones and Sugars in Pistacia vera L. cv. Kirmizi Development. Agronomy. 2021; 11(11):2115. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112115

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morkunas, Iwona, Mehmet Z. Doğu, Agnieszka Woźniak, Waldemar Bednarski, Jacek Kęsy, Jan Bocianowski, Şule H. Atar, İpek D. Ürün, Mateusz Labudda, Zofia Zydlik, Nesibe E. Kafkas, Salih Kafkas, and Philippe Jeandet. 2021. "Profile of Semiquinone Radicals, Phytohormones and Sugars in Pistacia vera L. cv. Kirmizi Development" Agronomy 11, no. 11: 2115. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11112115

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