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Article

Nitrous Oxide Emission from Forage Plantain and Perennial Ryegrass Swards Is Affected by Belowground Resource Allocation Dynamics

1
Grass and Forage Science/Organic Agriculture, Christian-Albrechts University, 24118 Kiel, Germany
2
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Animal Research Institute, Achimota, P.O. Box AH20, Ghana
3
Department of Soil and Plant Microbiome, Institute of Phytopathology, University of Kiel, 24118 Kiel, Germany
4
Grass Based Dairy Systems, Animal Production Systems Group, Wageningen University (WUR), 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco Montemurro
Agronomy 2021, 11(10), 1936; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11101936
Received: 2 September 2021 / Revised: 21 September 2021 / Accepted: 23 September 2021 / Published: 27 September 2021
Soil–plant interactions affecting nitrous oxide (N2O) are not well-understood, and experimental data are scarce. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 full factorial design, comprising three mineral N fertilizer rates (0, 150 and 300 kg N ha−1) applied to monoculture swards and a binary mixture of Plantago lanceolata and Lolium perenne. The parameters measured included daily N2O emissions, aboveground (AG) and belowground biomass (BG), N and C yields, as well as leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activity in the soil as an indicator for soil microbial activity. Nitrous oxide emission and LAP were measured using the static chamber method and fluorimetric microplate assays, respectively. Cumulative N2O emissions were about two times higher for P. lanceolata than L. perenne monoculture swards or the mixture (p < 0.05). The binary mixtures also showed the highest N use efficiency and LAP activity, which significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the C concentration in the belowground biomass. Plantago lanceolata was generally ineffective at reducing N2O emissions, probably due to the young age of the swards. Among the biological factors, N2O emission was significantly associated with biomass productivity, belowground C yield, belowground N use efficiency and soil microbial activity. Thus, the results suggested belowground resource allocation dynamics as a possible means by which swards impacted N2O emission from the soils. However, a high N deposition might reduce the N2O mitigation potential of grasslands. View Full-Text
Keywords: fertilization; nitrous oxide; perennial ryegrass; forage plantain; nitrification inhibition; Northern Germany fertilization; nitrous oxide; perennial ryegrass; forage plantain; nitrification inhibition; Northern Germany
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nyameasem, J.K.; Ben Halima, E.; Malisch, C.S.; Razavi, B.S.; Taube, F.; Reinsch, T. Nitrous Oxide Emission from Forage Plantain and Perennial Ryegrass Swards Is Affected by Belowground Resource Allocation Dynamics. Agronomy 2021, 11, 1936. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11101936

AMA Style

Nyameasem JK, Ben Halima E, Malisch CS, Razavi BS, Taube F, Reinsch T. Nitrous Oxide Emission from Forage Plantain and Perennial Ryegrass Swards Is Affected by Belowground Resource Allocation Dynamics. Agronomy. 2021; 11(10):1936. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11101936

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nyameasem, John Kormla, Enis Ben Halima, Carsten Stefan Malisch, Bahar S. Razavi, Friedhelm Taube, and Thorsten Reinsch. 2021. "Nitrous Oxide Emission from Forage Plantain and Perennial Ryegrass Swards Is Affected by Belowground Resource Allocation Dynamics" Agronomy 11, no. 10: 1936. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy11101936

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