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Article

Development and Characteristics of Interspecific Hybrids between Brassica oleracea L. and B. napus L.

1
Department of Genetics and Breeding, Research Institute of Horticulture, Konstytucji 3 Maja 1/3 Str., 96-100 Skierniewice, Poland
2
Department of Applied Biology, Research Institute of Horticulture, Konstytucji 3 Maja 1/3 Str., 96-100 Skierniewice, Poland
3
Plant Breeding and Acclimatization National Research Institute, Strzeszyńska 36 Str., 60-479 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(9), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10091339
Received: 16 July 2020 / Revised: 2 September 2020 / Accepted: 3 September 2020 / Published: 5 September 2020
Interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea inbred lines of head cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kale and B. taurica and inbred lines of rapeseed (B. napus L.) were performed aiming at the development of the new sources of genetic variability of vegetable Brassicas. Using conventional crossings and the embryo-rescue techniques the following interspecific hybrids were developed: 11 genotypes of F1 generation, 18 genotypes of F2 and F1 × F2 generations (produced after self- and cross-pollination of interspecific F1 hybrids), 10 plants of the BC1 generation (resulted from crossing head cabbage cytoplasmic male-sterile lines with interspecific hybrids of the F2 and F1 generations) and 8 plants of BC1 × (F1 × F2). No viable seeds of the BC2 generation (B. oleracea) were obtained due to the strong incompatibility and high mortality of embryos. The morphological characteristics during the vegetative and generative stages, pollen characteristics, seed development and propagation, nuclear DNA contents and genome compositions of interspecific hybrids were analyzed. All the interspecific F1 hybrids were male-fertile with a majority of undeveloped and malformed pollen grains. They showed intermediate values for morphological traits and nuclear DNA contents and had nearly triploid chromosomal numbers (27 to 29) compared with parental lines. The F2 generation had a doubled nuclear DNA content, with 52 and 56 chromosomes, indicating their allohexaploid nature. F2 hybrids were characterized by a high heterosis of morphological characteristics, viable pollen and good seed development. F1 × F2 hybrids were male-fertile with a diversified DNA content and intermediate pollen viability. BC1 plants were male-sterile with an intermediate nuclear DNA content between the F2 and head cabbage, having 28 to 38 chromosomes. Plants of the BC1 × (F1 × F2) generation were in majority male-fertile with 38–46 chromosomes, high seed set, high heterosis and intermediate values for morphological traits. The obtained interspecific hybrids are valuable as new germplasm for improving Brassica-breeding programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: B. oleracea × B. napus; embryo-rescue; flow cytometry; fluorescence in situ hybridization; interspecific crosses; morphological traits B. oleracea × B. napus; embryo-rescue; flow cytometry; fluorescence in situ hybridization; interspecific crosses; morphological traits
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    Description: Tables Table S1. Self/sibling pollination and interspecific hybridization of Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus genotypes in Skierniewice during 2014. Table S2. Seed and embryo development of interspecific hybrids (B. oleracea × B. napus) after self- and cross-pollination. Table S3. Seed set of interspecific hybrids (B. oleracea × B. napus) after open-pollination by mixture of pollen in Skierniewice 2019. Table S4. Morphological characteristics of parental B. napus and B. oleracea lines and the interspecific hybrids of the F1, F2, F1 × F2 and BC1 generations during the vegetative phase. Table S5. Morphological characteristics and nuclear DNA contents of parental B. napus and B. oleracea lines and the interspecific hybrids of the F1, F2, F1 × F2 and BC1 generations during the reproductive phase. Figures Figure S1. Development of interspecific hybrids of B. oleracea × B. napus using embryo-rescue: a) pods, 2 weeks after pollination, b) embryos development – torpedo stage, c) calluses obtained from globular embryos, d) in vitro regenerants of interspecific hybrids, e) hydroponic culture, an explant before planting in soil, f) transfer of the interspecific hybrids from in vitro to in vivo cultures. g) Seeds of interspecific hybrids of F2 generation (bottom) in comparison to B. oleracea (middle) and B. napus (top). h) Pods of ZGH08 × P1162 hybrid (kale × rapeseed) after cross-pollination Figure S2. Morphological characteristics of interspecific F1 hybrids: a) leaf and flower stack of S1 F1 kale × rapeseed, b) leaf and flower stack of S15 F1 kale × rapeseed, c) S7 F1 plant head cabbage × rapeseed, d) S14 F1 plant Brussels sprout × rapeseed, e) S19 F1 plant head cabbage × rapeseed, f) X20 F1 plant head cabbage × rapeseed. Figure. S3. Pollen staining with Alexander´s solution. a-i) Interspecific hybrids of F1 generation. j-k) Interspecific hybrids of F2 generation. l-o) Interspecific hybrids of F1×F2 generation. a) S1 F1 kale × rapeseed. b) S2 F1 kale × rapeseed. c) S7 F1 head cabbage × rapeseed. d) S9 F1 B. taurica × rapeseed e) S14 F1 Brussels sprout × rapeseed f) S15 F1 kale × rapeseed. g) S18 F1 Brussels sprout × rapeseed. h) S20 F1 kale × rapeseed. i) X22 F1 kale × rapeseed. j) S14 F1 × S14 F1. k) S15 F1 × S2 F1. l) S1F1 × (S15 F1 × S2 F1). m) S7 F1 × (S14 F1 × S14 F1). n) S7 F1 × (S15 F1 ×S2 F1). o) S20 F1 × (S14 F1 × S14 F1).
MDPI and ACS Style

Kamiński, P.; Marasek-Ciolakowska, A.; Podwyszyńska, M.; Starzycki, M.; Starzycka-Korbas, E.; Nowak, K. Development and Characteristics of Interspecific Hybrids between Brassica oleracea L. and B. napus L. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1339. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10091339

AMA Style

Kamiński P, Marasek-Ciolakowska A, Podwyszyńska M, Starzycki M, Starzycka-Korbas E, Nowak K. Development and Characteristics of Interspecific Hybrids between Brassica oleracea L. and B. napus L. Agronomy. 2020; 10(9):1339. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10091339

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kamiński, Piotr, Agnieszka Marasek-Ciolakowska, Małgorzata Podwyszyńska, Michał Starzycki, Elżbieta Starzycka-Korbas, and Katarzyna Nowak. 2020. "Development and Characteristics of Interspecific Hybrids between Brassica oleracea L. and B. napus L." Agronomy 10, no. 9: 1339. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10091339

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