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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Establishment Techniques and Their Implications for Soil Properties, Global Warming Potential Mitigation and Crop Yields

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Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh
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Agriculture Discipline, College of Science, Health, Engineering and Education, Murdoch University, Perth WA-6150, Australia
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Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
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Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GECR), Faculty of Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, NSW, Australia
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Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur 1701, Bangladesh
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Department of Crop Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Darul Ehsan-43400, Malaysia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(6), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060888
Received: 10 April 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
Rice-based intensive cropping systems require high input levels making them less profitable and vulnerable to the reduced availability of labor and water in Asia. With continuous conventional puddled rice transplanting, the situation is exacerbated by damaged soil structure, declining underground water and decreasing land and water productivity. To minimize these negative effects a range of new crop establishment practices have been developed (zero tillage, dry direct seeding, wet direct seeding, water seeding, strip planting, bed planting, non-puddled transplanting of rice, mechanical transplanting of rice crop and combinations thereof) with varying effects on soil health, crop productivity, resource saving and global warming mitigation potential. Some of these allow Conservation Agriculture (CA) to be practiced in the rice-based mono-, double- and triple cropping systems. Innovations in machinery especially for smallholder farms have supported the adoption of the new establishment techniques. Non-puddling establishment of rice together with increased crop residue retention increased soil organic carbon by 79% and total N (TN) in soil by 62% relative to conventional puddling practice. Rice establishment methods (direct seeding of rice, system of rice intensification and non-puddled transplanting of rice) improve soil health by improving the physical (reduced bulk density, increased porosity, available water content), chemical (increased phosphorus, potassium and sulphur in their available forms) and biological properties (microbiome structure, microbial biomass C and N) of the soil. Even in the first year of its practice, the non-puddled transplanting method of rice establishment and CA practices for other crops increase the productivity of the rice-based cropping systems. Estimates suggest global warming potential (GWP) (the overall net effect) can be reduced by a quarter by replacing conventional puddling of rice by direct-seeded rice in the Indo-Gangetic Plains for the rice-based cropping system. Moreover, non-puddled transplanting of rice saves 35% of the net life cycle greenhouse gases (GHGs) compared with the conventional practice by a combination of decreasing greenhouse gases emissions from soil and increasing soil organic carbon (SOC). Though the system of rice intensification decreases net GHG emission, the practice releases 1.5 times greater N2O due to the increased soil aeration. There is no single rice establishment technology that is superior to others in all circumstances, rather a range of effective technologies that can be applied to different agro-climates, demography and farm typologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: conservation agriculture; direct seeded rice; economics; greenhouse gas; non-puddled transplanting; puddled transplanting conservation agriculture; direct seeded rice; economics; greenhouse gas; non-puddled transplanting; puddled transplanting
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alam, M.K.; Bell, R.W.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Salahin, N.; Rashid, M.H.; Akter, N.; Akhter, S.; Islam, M.S.; Islam, S.; Naznin, S.; Anik, M.F.A.; Apu, M.M.R.B.; Saif, H.B.; Alam, M.J.; Khatun, M.F. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Establishment Techniques and Their Implications for Soil Properties, Global Warming Potential Mitigation and Crop Yields. Agronomy 2020, 10, 888. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060888

AMA Style

Alam MK, Bell RW, Hasanuzzaman M, Salahin N, Rashid MH, Akter N, Akhter S, Islam MS, Islam S, Naznin S, Anik MFA, Apu MMRB, Saif HB, Alam MJ, Khatun MF. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Establishment Techniques and Their Implications for Soil Properties, Global Warming Potential Mitigation and Crop Yields. Agronomy. 2020; 10(6):888. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060888

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alam, Md. K., Richard W. Bell, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, N. Salahin, M.H. Rashid, Nadia Akter, S. Akhter, Mahammad S. Islam, S. Islam, S. Naznin, M.F.A. Anik, Md. M.R.B. Apu, Hasib B. Saif, M.J. Alam, and Mst. F. Khatun 2020. "Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Establishment Techniques and Their Implications for Soil Properties, Global Warming Potential Mitigation and Crop Yields" Agronomy 10, no. 6: 888. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060888

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