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Article

Soil, Site, and Management Factors Affecting Cadmium Concentrations in Cacao-Growing Soils

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Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Complesso Universitario MSA, Via Cinthia, 80126 Naples, Italy
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School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Kent Street, Bentley 6102, Australia
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Fondo Italo Peruano, Avenida Arenales 2160, San Isidro 15073, Lima
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Earth to Be, Consulting Group, Cottesloe 6011, Australia
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School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Kent St, Bentley 6102, Australia
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National Program of Agrarian Innovation Department, Unidad de Apoyo al Fortalecimiento del Servicio del INIA, Lima 15026, Peru
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Centre for Ecosystem Science, School of Biological, Earth & Environmental Sciences, UNSW Sydney, Sydney 2052, Australia
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School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(6), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060806
Received: 15 May 2020 / Accepted: 3 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
Soil contamination by potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs) such as Cadmium (Cd), is a major environmental concern because of its potential implications to human health. Cacao-based products have been identified as food sources with relatively high Cd contents. Here, we assessed Cd concentrations of cacao-growing soils in four major agricultural regions with contrasting climates in Peru, one of the main exporters of cacao products worldwide. At each study site (n = 40) a broad range of potential factors affecting Cd concentration in soils, i.e., site, soil and management, were evaluated. Concentrations of Cd ranged between 1.1–3.2 mg kg−1. Mean values per region were below 2.7 mg kg−1, usually established as upper-limit for non-polluted soils. Cadmium concentrations were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in sites at higher elevations and in a temperate, drier climate. Cadmium correlated positively with pH (r = 0.57; p < 0.05) and was higher (p < 0.001) in alluvial sediments and Leptosols. Management factors (cacao variety, cultivation year, management practices) and agroecology did not affect Cd concentrations directly. Overall, this study highlights the importance of considering a broad range of both natural and anthropogenic factors to evaluate Cd concentrations in cacao-growing soils and contribute to effective and sustainable cacao production by improving land management and planning. View Full-Text
Keywords: cacao plantation; cadmium; trace elements; soil quality; sustainable land management cacao plantation; cadmium; trace elements; soil quality; sustainable land management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scaccabarozzi, D.; Castillo, L.; Aromatisi, A.; Milne, L.; Búllon Castillo, A.; Muñoz-Rojas, M. Soil, Site, and Management Factors Affecting Cadmium Concentrations in Cacao-Growing Soils. Agronomy 2020, 10, 806. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060806

AMA Style

Scaccabarozzi D, Castillo L, Aromatisi A, Milne L, Búllon Castillo A, Muñoz-Rojas M. Soil, Site, and Management Factors Affecting Cadmium Concentrations in Cacao-Growing Soils. Agronomy. 2020; 10(6):806. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060806

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scaccabarozzi, Daniela, Luis Castillo, Andrea Aromatisi, Lynne Milne, Adolfo Búllon Castillo, and Miriam Muñoz-Rojas. 2020. "Soil, Site, and Management Factors Affecting Cadmium Concentrations in Cacao-Growing Soils" Agronomy 10, no. 6: 806. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10060806

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