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Variations in Growth, Physiology, and Antioxidative Defense Responses of Two Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivars after Co-Infection of Fusarium oxysporum and Meloidogyne incognita

1
Guangxi Key Laboratory of Agric-Environment and Agric-products Safety, Agricultural College of Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China
2
Department of Plant Pathology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
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Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), College of Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China
4
National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
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National Key Laboratory of Crop Improvement Genetics, College of Plant Sciences and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei, China
6
Department of Life Sciences, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(2), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10020159
Received: 16 November 2019 / Revised: 27 December 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 22 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Defense Responses in Crops Against Soil-Borne Pathogens)
The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) and the nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) are destructive pathogens that cause substantial yield losses to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops worldwide. The present study sought to elucidate the physiological, biochemical, and cytological responses of tomato cultivars (Gailing maofen 802 and Zhongza 09) by root invasion of Fo (1 × 105 CFUmL−1) and Mi (1500 second-stage juveniles (J2) alone and in combination after 14 days. Results revealed that combined inoculation of Fo and Mi significantly increased disease intensity, electrolyte leakage, and hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents; and decreased photosynthetic capacity and enzyme activity in both cultivars as compared to their solo inoculation. Increasing the disease intensity reduced the maximum morphological traits, such as shoot length, total dry weight, and total chlorophyll contents, in G. maofen 802 (by 32%, 54.2%, and 52.3%, respectively) and Zhongza 09 (by 18%, 32%, and 21%, respectively) as compared to the control. Others factors were also reduced in G. maofen 802 and Zhongza 09, such as photosynthetic capacity (by 70% and 57%, respectively), stomatal conductance (by 86% and 70%, respectively), photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (YII) (by 36.6% and 29%, respectively), and electron transport rate (by 17.7% and 10%, respectively), after combined inoculation of Fo and Mi. Furthermore, the combined infestation of Fo and Mi resulted in reduced activity of plant-defense-related antioxidants in G. maofen 802 compared with their single application or control. However, these antioxidants were highly up-regulated in Zhongza 09 (by 59%–93%), revealing the induction of tolerance against studied pathogens. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results further demonstrated that root cells of Zhongza 09 had unique tetrahedral crystal-like structures in the membrane close to mitochondria under all treatments except control. Therefore, it is concluded that Mi caused severe root damage, suppressed plant growth, depleted antioxidants, and caused high generation of ROS in the presence of Fo as compared to its solo inoculation. Tolerant cultivars adopted different mechanistic strategies at the structural and cellular levels to tolerate the Mi and Fo stresses. View Full-Text
Keywords: Solanum lycopersicum; Meloidogyne incognita; Fusarium oxysporum; disease intensity; photosynthetic traits; antioxidants; cytology Solanum lycopersicum; Meloidogyne incognita; Fusarium oxysporum; disease intensity; photosynthetic traits; antioxidants; cytology
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Maqsood, A.; Wu, H.; Kamran, M.; Altaf, H.; Mustafa, A.; Ahmar, S.; Hong, N.T.T.; Tariq, K.; He, Q.; Chen, J.-T. Variations in Growth, Physiology, and Antioxidative Defense Responses of Two Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivars after Co-Infection of Fusarium oxysporum and Meloidogyne incognita. Agronomy 2020, 10, 159.

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