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Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation on N2 Fixation, Phytochemical Profiles and Rhizosphere Soil Microbes of Cancer Bush Lessertia frutescens (L.)

1
Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of South Africa, Private Bag X6, Florida 1710, South Africa
2
Agricultural Research Council-Roodeplaat, Vegetable, and Ornamental Plants, Private Bag X293, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
3
School of Agricultural, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3201, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(11), 1675; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111675
Received: 5 October 2020 / Revised: 22 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Soil and Plant Nutrition)
Plant-beneficial microorganisms are determinants of plant health and productivity. However, the effects associated with secondary plant metabolism and interactions in the rhizosphere for Cancer bush Lessertia frutescens (L.) is unclear. The study was conducted to understand the mechanism of rhizobium inoculation for L. frutescens, variations in phytochemicals, soluble sugars, and soil–plant interactions in the rhizosphere. Four rhizobium inoculation levels (0, 100, 200, and 400 g) were evaluated under the field conditions to establish the antioxidant properties, soluble sugars, and rhizosphere soil microbial diversity at 150, 240, and 330 days after planting (d.a.p). Although inoculation did not significantly affect plant biomass and N2 fixation of L. frutescens, total phenolics and flavonoids were enhanced with the application of 200 g at 240 days after planting. The antioxidant values analyzed through FRAP (Ferric reducing power assay) were highest with 100 g inoculation at 240 days after planting. Water-soluble sugars such as fructose, sucrose, and glucose increased with the application of 400, 200, and 100 g rhizobium inoculation. The rhizosphere′s carbon source utilization profiles (CSUP) did not vary significantly, depicting the weaker ability in converting C, P, and N profiles. The lowest ß glucosidase activity was observed in the bulk soil with the lowest alkaline and acid phosphatase activities. Soil microbial populations present in the bulk sample demonstrated the smallest overall enzyme activities. The variation of different variables studied indicate the potential of rhizobium inoculation. However, further studies are required to ascertain the inoculation′s effectiveness for plant growth and rhizosphere microbial populations of L. frutescens. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant activity; flavonoids; phenolics; soluble sugars; soil microbial and enzymatic activities antioxidant activity; flavonoids; phenolics; soluble sugars; soil microbial and enzymatic activities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Makgato, M.J.; Araya, H.T.; du Plooy, C.P.; Mokgehle, S.N.; Mudau, F.N. Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation on N2 Fixation, Phytochemical Profiles and Rhizosphere Soil Microbes of Cancer Bush Lessertia frutescens (L.). Agronomy 2020, 10, 1675. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111675

AMA Style

Makgato MJ, Araya HT, du Plooy CP, Mokgehle SN, Mudau FN. Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation on N2 Fixation, Phytochemical Profiles and Rhizosphere Soil Microbes of Cancer Bush Lessertia frutescens (L.). Agronomy. 2020; 10(11):1675. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111675

Chicago/Turabian Style

Makgato, Manaka J., Hintsa T. Araya, Christian P. du Plooy, Salmina N. Mokgehle, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau 2020. "Effects of Rhizobium Inoculation on N2 Fixation, Phytochemical Profiles and Rhizosphere Soil Microbes of Cancer Bush Lessertia frutescens (L.)" Agronomy 10, no. 11: 1675. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10111675

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