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Article

Modeling of Stochastic Temperature and Heat Stress Directly Underneath Agrivoltaic Conditions with Orthosiphon Stamineus Crop Cultivation

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Department of Agriculture Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
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Hybrid Agrivoltaic Systems Showcase (HAVs) eDU-PARK, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Process & Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
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Centre for Advanced Lightning, Power and Energy Research (ALPER), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
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Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
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Faculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
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Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Agri-Science Queensland, Leslie Research Facility, 13 Holberton Street, Toowoomba, QLD 4350, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(10), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101472
Received: 28 July 2020 / Revised: 9 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photovoltaics and Electrification in Agriculture)
This paper presents the field measured data of the ambient temperature profile and the heat stress occurrences directly underneath ground-mounted solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays (monocrystalline-based), focusing on different temperature levels. A previous study has shown that a 1 °C increase in PV cell temperature results in a reduction of 0.5% in energy conversion efficiency; thus, the temperature factor is critical, especially to solar farm operators. The transpiration process also plays an important role in the cooling of green plants where, on average, it could dissipate a significant amount of the total solar energy absorbed by the leaves, making it a good natural cooling mechanism. It was found from this work that the PV system’s bottom surface temperature was the main source of dissipated heat, as shown in the thermal images recorded at 5-min intervals at three sampling times. A statistical analysis further showed that the thermal correlation for the transpiration process and heat stress occurrences between the PV system’s bottom surface and plant height will be an important factor for large scale plant cultivation in agrivoltaic farms. View Full-Text
Keywords: transpiration; PV heat conversion; plant heat stress; agrivoltaic system; sustainable integration; thermal analysis transpiration; PV heat conversion; plant heat stress; agrivoltaic system; sustainable integration; thermal analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Othman, N.F.; Yaacob, M.E.; Mat Su, A.S.; Jaafar, J.N.; Hizam, H.; Shahidan, M.F.; Jamaluddin, A.H.; Chen, G.; Jalaludin, A. Modeling of Stochastic Temperature and Heat Stress Directly Underneath Agrivoltaic Conditions with Orthosiphon Stamineus Crop Cultivation. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1472. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101472

AMA Style

Othman NF, Yaacob ME, Mat Su AS, Jaafar JN, Hizam H, Shahidan MF, Jamaluddin AH, Chen G, Jalaludin A. Modeling of Stochastic Temperature and Heat Stress Directly Underneath Agrivoltaic Conditions with Orthosiphon Stamineus Crop Cultivation. Agronomy. 2020; 10(10):1472. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101472

Chicago/Turabian Style

Othman, Noor F., Mohammad E. Yaacob, Ahmad S. Mat Su, Juju N. Jaafar, Hashim Hizam, Mohd F. Shahidan, Ahmad H. Jamaluddin, Guangnan Chen, and Adam Jalaludin. 2020. "Modeling of Stochastic Temperature and Heat Stress Directly Underneath Agrivoltaic Conditions with Orthosiphon Stamineus Crop Cultivation" Agronomy 10, no. 10: 1472. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101472

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