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Open AccessArticle

Germination Ecology of Brachiaria eruciformis in Australia and Its Implications for Weed Management

Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1163, Iran
The Centre for Crop Science, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), The University of Queensland, Gatton, 4343 Queensland, Australia
Amrita School of Agricultural Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore 641112, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(1), 30;
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 19 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 24 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecologically Sustainable Weed Management in Cropping Systems)
Brachiaria eruciformis (Sm.) Griseb. is a noxious weed of Australia and other parts of the world. The effects of different environmental conditions on the seed germination and seedling emergence of three biotypes sourced from different cropping systems (mungbean field, sorghum field, and fenceline) of this weed were evaluated. There were no differences in the response of biotypes to the evaluated factors; therefore, the data was pooled across the biotypes. The highest germination rate was observed at 30/20 °C, and seeds germinated both in light and dark conditions. Seed germination was influenced by different sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations and water potentials, and no seeds germinated at 200 mM NaCl and −0.8 MPa water potential. Seeds germinated (>70%) at a broad range of pH, from 4 to 10. Compared with seeds sown on the soil surface, a burial depth of 4 cm reduced the seedling emergence by 84%. Similarly, a sorghum residue amount of 4 t ha−1 on the soil surface reduced the seedling emergence by 65%, compared with no sorghum residue cover. No seedlings emerged from seeds buried at 8 cm depth and >4 t ha−1 sorghum residue. This study suggests that burying seeds deep into the soil through tillage or employing a residue cover on the soil surface can reduce B. eruciformis emergence. View Full-Text
Keywords: burial depth; pH; salinity; sorghum residue and water deficit burial depth; pH; salinity; sorghum residue and water deficit
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Mobli, A.; Mollaee, M.; Manalil, S.; Chauhan, B.S. Germination Ecology of Brachiaria eruciformis in Australia and Its Implications for Weed Management. Agronomy 2020, 10, 30.

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