Next Article in Journal
In Vitro Biocompatibility, Radiopacity, and Physical Property Tests of Nano-Fe3O4 Incorporated Poly-l-lactide Bone Screws
Next Article in Special Issue
Preparation and Characterization of Quaternized Chitosan Coated Alginate Microspheres for Blue Dextran Delivery
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Recent Progress on Hyperbranched Polymers Synthesized via Radical-Based Self-Condensing Vinyl Polymerization
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Polymers 2017, 9(6), 186;

Combining ATRP and FRP Gels: Soft Gluing of Polymeric Materials for the Fabrication of Stackable Gels

Department of Chemistry, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chih-Feng Huang
Received: 7 May 2017 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 20 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionally Responsive Polymeric Materials)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1690 KB, uploaded 24 May 2017]   |  


Stackable gels comprised of layers of dissimilar polymers were synthesized by combining conventional free radical polymerization (FRP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using two approaches: (i) polymerization of a pre-gel solution containing a monomer and cross-linker introduced on top of a previously prepared gel, and (ii) simultaneous polymerization of two immiscible pre-gel solutions remaining in contact. All permutations of FRP and ATRP yielded single-piece, connected, amphiphilic gels regardless of the order of polymerization. Furthermore, multi-layer ATRP gels combining different polymers were synthesized with the FRP layer as a gluing agent. A 10-layer amphiphilic stackable gel combining n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and a 10-layer stackable gel combining BMA, DMAEMA and di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEO2MA) were synthesized. This patching method, combining conventional FRP gels with ATRP ones, offers an efficient path to the formation of complex stackable gel architectures. View Full-Text
Keywords: stacked gel; multi-layer gels; ATRP gel; FRP gel stacked gel; multi-layer gels; ATRP gel; FRP gel

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Beziau, A.; de Menezes, R.N.L.; Biswas, S.; Singh, A.; Cuthbert, J.; Balazs, A.C.; Kowalewski, T.; Matyjaszewski, K. Combining ATRP and FRP Gels: Soft Gluing of Polymeric Materials for the Fabrication of Stackable Gels. Polymers 2017, 9, 186.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top