Next Article in Journal
Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Polyelectrolyte Multilayer onto PET Fabric for Highly Tunable Dyeing with Water Soluble Dyestuffs
Next Article in Special Issue
Melamine–Glyoxal–Glutaraldehyde Wood Panel Adhesives without Formaldehyde
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of Chromatic Dispersion and Refractive Index of Polymer Optical Fibers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bio-Inspired Polymeric Structures with Special Wettability and Their Applications: An Overview
Open AccessArticle

Adhesives for Achieving Durable Bonds with Acetylated Wood

USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI 53726-2398, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2017, 9(12), 731;
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 13 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Polymeric Adhesives)
Acetylation of wood imparts moisture durability, decay resistance, and dimensional stability to wood; however, making durable adhesive bonds with acetylated wood can be more difficult than with unmodified wood. The usual explanation is that the acetylated surface has fewer hydroxyl groups, resulting in a harder-to-wet surface and in fewer hydrogen bonds between wood and adhesive. This concept was evaluated using four different adhesives (resorcinol–formaldehyde, emulsion polymer isocyanate, epoxy, and melamine–formaldehyde) with unmodified wood, acetylated wood, and acetylated wood that had been planed. Strikingly, acetylation did not hinder adhesive bonds with a waterborne resorcinol–formaldehyde adhesive that bonded equally well to both unmodified and acetylated yellow poplar. An epoxy adhesive bonded better to the acetylated wood than to the unmodified wood, in contrast to an emulsion polymer isocyanate, which gave less durable bonds to acetylated than to unmodified wood. Planing of the acetylated wood surface prior to bonding reduced bond durability for the epoxy adhesive and increased the amount of surface hydroxyl groups, as measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of the trifluoroacetic anhydride-treated wood. These experiments showed that wood modification is useful in understanding wood-adhesive interactions, in addition to determining how to develop adhesives for acetylated woods. View Full-Text
Keywords: wood; adhesion; acetylated; planing; hydroxyls; phenolic; epoxy; isocyanate; strength; failure wood; adhesion; acetylated; planing; hydroxyls; phenolic; epoxy; isocyanate; strength; failure
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Frihart, C.R.; Brandon, R.; Beecher, J.F.; Ibach, R.E. Adhesives for Achieving Durable Bonds with Acetylated Wood. Polymers 2017, 9, 731.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop