Next Article in Journal
Relaxation Dynamics of Semiflexible Fractal Macromolecules
Next Article in Special Issue
Study of Water-Based Lithium Titanate Electrode Processing: The Role of pH and Binder Molecular Structure
Previous Article in Journal
Bio-Based Polymers with Potential for Biodegradability
Previous Article in Special Issue
Study on the Soy Protein-Based Wood Adhesive Modified by Hydroxymethyl Phenol
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Polymers 2016, 8(7), 259;

Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork

LEPABE–Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Pizzi
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Polymeric Adhesives)
PDF [1701 KB, uploaded 14 July 2016]


Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study, xanthan gum (XG) and chitosan (CS) were investigated as possible natural binders for cork. Xanthan gum was oxidized at two different aldehyde contents as a strategy to improve its water resistance. This modification was studied in detail by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and the degree of oxidation was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride titration method. The performance of the adhesives was studied by tensile tests and total soluble matter (TSM) determinations. Xanthan gum showed no water resistance, contrary to oxidized xanthan gum and chitosan. It is hypothesized that the good performance of oxidized xanthan gum is due to the reaction of aldehyde groups—formed in the oxidation process—with hydroxyl groups on the cork surface during the high temperature drying. Combining oxidized xanthan gum with chitosan did not yield significant improvements. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidized xanthan gum; oxidized polysaccharide; chitosan; cork; natural adhesive oxidized xanthan gum; oxidized polysaccharide; chitosan; cork; natural adhesive

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Paiva, D.; Gonçalves, C.; Vale, I.; Bastos, M.M.S.M.; Magalhães, F.D. Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork. Polymers 2016, 8, 259.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top