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Open AccessArticle

Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork

LEPABE–Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Pizzi
Polymers 2016, 8(7), 259;
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 14 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Polysaccharides)
Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study, xanthan gum (XG) and chitosan (CS) were investigated as possible natural binders for cork. Xanthan gum was oxidized at two different aldehyde contents as a strategy to improve its water resistance. This modification was studied in detail by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and the degree of oxidation was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride titration method. The performance of the adhesives was studied by tensile tests and total soluble matter (TSM) determinations. Xanthan gum showed no water resistance, contrary to oxidized xanthan gum and chitosan. It is hypothesized that the good performance of oxidized xanthan gum is due to the reaction of aldehyde groups—formed in the oxidation process—with hydroxyl groups on the cork surface during the high temperature drying. Combining oxidized xanthan gum with chitosan did not yield significant improvements. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidized xanthan gum; oxidized polysaccharide; chitosan; cork; natural adhesive oxidized xanthan gum; oxidized polysaccharide; chitosan; cork; natural adhesive
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paiva, D.; Gonçalves, C.; Vale, I.; Bastos, M.M.S.M.; Magalhães, F.D. Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork. Polymers 2016, 8, 259.

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