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Article

Fabrication and Characterization of PCL/HA Filament as a 3D Printing Material Using Thermal Extrusion Technology for Bone Tissue Engineering

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MIRACLE Smart Implants Group, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, 4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
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Medical Additive Manufacturing Research Group (Swiss MAM), Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, 4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
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Biomaterials and Technology, Department of Reconstructive Dentistry, University Center for Dental Medicine Basel UZB, University of Basel, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
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Clinic of Oral and Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland
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Biomaterials and Technology, Department of Research, University Center of Dental Medicine Basel UZB, University of Basel, 4058 Basel, Switzerland
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Institute for Medical Engineering and Medical Informatics, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Northwestern Switzerland, 4132 Muttenz, Switzerland
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Department of Stomatology, Shenzhen University General Hospital and Shenzhen University Clinical Medical Academy, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518071, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ali Reza Zanjanijam
Polymers 2022, 14(4), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040669
Received: 21 December 2021 / Revised: 28 January 2022 / Accepted: 6 February 2022 / Published: 11 February 2022
The most common three-dimensional (3D) printing method is material extrusion, where a pre-made filament is deposited layer-by-layer. In recent years, low-cost polycaprolactone (PCL) material has increasingly been used in 3D printing, exhibiting a sufficiently high quality for consideration in cranio-maxillofacial reconstructions. To increase osteoconductivity, prefabricated filaments for bone repair based on PCL can be supplemented with hydroxyapatite (HA). However, few reports on PCL/HA composite filaments for material extrusion applications have been documented. In this study, solvent-free fabrication for PCL/HA composite filaments (HA 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% weight/weight PCL) was addressed, and parameters for scaffold fabrication in a desktop 3D printer were confirmed. Filaments and scaffold fabrication temperatures rose with increased HA content. The pore size and porosity of the six groups’ scaffolds were similar to each other, and all had highly interconnected structures. Six groups’ scaffolds were evaluated by measuring the compressive strength, elastic modulus, water contact angle, and morphology. A higher amount of HA increased surface roughness and hydrophilicity compared to PCL scaffolds. The increase in HA content improved the compressive strength and elastic modulus. The obtained data provide the basis for the biological evaluation and future clinical applications of PCL/HA material. View Full-Text
Keywords: polycaprolactone (PCL); hydroxyapatite (HA); material extrusion; three-dimensional printing; scaffold; hydrophilicity; mechanical testing polycaprolactone (PCL); hydroxyapatite (HA); material extrusion; three-dimensional printing; scaffold; hydrophilicity; mechanical testing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, F.; Tankus, E.B.; Santarella, F.; Rohr, N.; Sharma, N.; Märtin, S.; Michalscheck, M.; Maintz, M.; Cao, S.; Thieringer, F.M. Fabrication and Characterization of PCL/HA Filament as a 3D Printing Material Using Thermal Extrusion Technology for Bone Tissue Engineering. Polymers 2022, 14, 669. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040669

AMA Style

Wang F, Tankus EB, Santarella F, Rohr N, Sharma N, Märtin S, Michalscheck M, Maintz M, Cao S, Thieringer FM. Fabrication and Characterization of PCL/HA Filament as a 3D Printing Material Using Thermal Extrusion Technology for Bone Tissue Engineering. Polymers. 2022; 14(4):669. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040669

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Fengze, Esma B. Tankus, Francesco Santarella, Nadja Rohr, Neha Sharma, Sabrina Märtin, Mirja Michalscheck, Michaela Maintz, Shuaishuai Cao, and Florian M. Thieringer. 2022. "Fabrication and Characterization of PCL/HA Filament as a 3D Printing Material Using Thermal Extrusion Technology for Bone Tissue Engineering" Polymers 14, no. 4: 669. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14040669

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