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Article

PHB/CHIT Scaffold as a Promising Biopolymer in the Treatment of Osteochondral Defects—An Experimental Animal Study

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Department of Morphological Disciplines, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice, Komenskeho 73, 04181 Kosice, Slovakia
2
Railway Hospital in Kosice, Masarykova 1632/9, 04001 Kosice, Slovakia
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Clinic of Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice, Komenskeho 73, 04181 Kosice, Slovakia
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Department of Biomedical Engineering and Measurement, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Kosice, Letna 9, 04200 Kosice, Slovakia
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Center of Clinical and Preclinical Research MediPark, Pavol Jozef Safarik University, 04011 Kosice, Slovakia
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Department of Biomedical Research, East-Slovak Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Inc., 04011 Kosice, Slovakia
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Prague Burn Centre, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Kralovske Vinohrady, 10034 Prague, Czech Republic
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Institute of Anatomy, Charles University, U nemocnice 3, 12800 Prague, Czech Republic
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Institute of Physiology, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 14200 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Biology and Physiology, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice, Komenskeho 73, 04181 Kosice, Slovakia
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Institute of Materials Research, The Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 1935/47, 04001 Kosice, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Eva Petrovova and Marek Tomco contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Roman A. Surmenev
Polymers 2021, 13(8), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13081232
Received: 15 March 2021 / Revised: 31 March 2021 / Accepted: 9 April 2021 / Published: 11 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan and Chitosan Derivatives in Biomedical Applications)
Biopolymer composites allow the creation of an optimal environment for the regeneration of chondral and osteochondral defects of articular cartilage, where natural regeneration potential is limited. In this experimental study, we used the sheep animal model for the creation of knee cartilage defects. In the medial part of the trochlea and on the medial condyle of the femur, we created artificial defects (6 × 3 mm2) with microfractures. In four experimental sheep, both defects were subsequently filled with the porous acellular polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan (PHB/CHIT)-based implant. Two sheep had untreated defects. We evaluated the quality of the newly formed tissue in the femoral trochlea defect site using imaging (X-ray, Computer Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)), macroscopic, and histological methods. Macroscopically, the surface of the treated regenerate corresponded to the niveau of the surrounding cartilage. X-ray examination 6 months after the implantation confirmed the restoration of the contour in the subchondral calcified layer and the advanced rate of bone tissue integration. The CT scan revealed a low regenerative potential in the bone zone of the defect compared to the cartilage zone. The percentage change in cartilage density at the defect site was not significantly different to the reference area (0.06–6.4%). MRI examination revealed that the healing osteochondral defect was comparable to the intact cartilage signal on the surface of the defect. Hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most of the treated animals, except for one, where the defect was repaired with fibrocartilage. Thus, the acellular, chitosan-based biomaterial is a promising biopolymer composite for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects of traumatic character. It has potential for further clinical testing in the orthopedic field, primarily with the combination of supporting factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopolymer; cartilage; chitosan; regeneration; sheep model biopolymer; cartilage; chitosan; regeneration; sheep model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Petrovova, E.; Tomco, M.; Holovska, K.; Danko, J.; Kresakova, L.; Vdoviakova, K.; Simaiova, V.; Kolvek, F.; Hornakova, P.; Toth, T.; Zivcak, J.; Gal, P.; Sedmera, D.; Luptakova, L.; Medvecky, L. PHB/CHIT Scaffold as a Promising Biopolymer in the Treatment of Osteochondral Defects—An Experimental Animal Study. Polymers 2021, 13, 1232. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13081232

AMA Style

Petrovova E, Tomco M, Holovska K, Danko J, Kresakova L, Vdoviakova K, Simaiova V, Kolvek F, Hornakova P, Toth T, Zivcak J, Gal P, Sedmera D, Luptakova L, Medvecky L. PHB/CHIT Scaffold as a Promising Biopolymer in the Treatment of Osteochondral Defects—An Experimental Animal Study. Polymers. 2021; 13(8):1232. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13081232

Chicago/Turabian Style

Petrovova, Eva, Marek Tomco, Katarina Holovska, Jan Danko, Lenka Kresakova, Katarina Vdoviakova, Veronika Simaiova, Filip Kolvek, Petra Hornakova, Teodor Toth, Jozef Zivcak, Peter Gal, David Sedmera, Lenka Luptakova, and Lubomir Medvecky. 2021. "PHB/CHIT Scaffold as a Promising Biopolymer in the Treatment of Osteochondral Defects—An Experimental Animal Study" Polymers 13, no. 8: 1232. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13081232

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