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Article

Kinked Bisamides as Efficient Supramolecular Foam Cell Nucleating Agents for Low-Density Polystyrene Foams with Homogeneous Microcellular Morphology

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Macromolecular Chemistry I, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
2
Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
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Inorganic Chemistry III, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
4
Bavarian Polymer Institute and Bayreuth Institute of Macromolecular Research, University of Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José Ignacio Velasco
Polymers 2021, 13(7), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071094
Received: 5 March 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 25 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Foams II)
Polystyrene foams have become more and more important owing to their lightweight potential and their insulation properties. Progress in this field is expected to be realized by foams featuring a microcellular morphology. However, large-scale processing of low-density foams with a closed-cell structure and volume expansion ratio of larger than 10, exhibiting a homogenous morphology with a mean cell size of approximately 10 µm, remains challenging. Here, we report on a series of 4,4′-diphenylmethane substituted bisamides, which we refer to as kinked bisamides, acting as efficient supramolecular foam cell nucleating agents for polystyrene. Self-assembly experiments from solution showed that these bisamides form supramolecular fibrillary or ribbon-like nanoobjects. These kinked bisamides can be dissolved at elevated temperatures in a large concentration range, forming dispersed nano-objects upon cooling. Batch foaming experiments using 1.0 wt.% of a selected kinked bisamide revealed that the mean cell size can be as low as 3.5 µm. To demonstrate the applicability of kinked bisamides in a high-throughput continuous foam process, we performed foam extrusion. Using 0.5 wt.% of a kinked bisamide yielded polymer foams with a foam density of 71 kg/m3 and a homogeneous microcellular morphology with cell sizes of ≈10 µm, which is two orders of magnitude lower compared to the neat polystyrene reference foam with a comparable foam density. View Full-Text
Keywords: supramolecular additives; foam nucleating agents; batch foaming; foam extrusion; cell nucleation; low-density polymer foams; microcellular foams; foam morphology supramolecular additives; foam nucleating agents; batch foaming; foam extrusion; cell nucleation; low-density polymer foams; microcellular foams; foam morphology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Klose, B.; Kremer, D.; Aksit, M.; Zwan, K.P.v.d.; Kreger, K.; Senker, J.; Altstädt, V.; Schmidt, H.-W. Kinked Bisamides as Efficient Supramolecular Foam Cell Nucleating Agents for Low-Density Polystyrene Foams with Homogeneous Microcellular Morphology. Polymers 2021, 13, 1094. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071094

AMA Style

Klose B, Kremer D, Aksit M, Zwan KPvd, Kreger K, Senker J, Altstädt V, Schmidt H-W. Kinked Bisamides as Efficient Supramolecular Foam Cell Nucleating Agents for Low-Density Polystyrene Foams with Homogeneous Microcellular Morphology. Polymers. 2021; 13(7):1094. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071094

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klose, Bastian, Daniel Kremer, Merve Aksit, Kasper P. van der Zwan, Klaus Kreger, Jürgen Senker, Volker Altstädt, and Hans-Werner Schmidt. 2021. "Kinked Bisamides as Efficient Supramolecular Foam Cell Nucleating Agents for Low-Density Polystyrene Foams with Homogeneous Microcellular Morphology" Polymers 13, no. 7: 1094. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071094

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