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Bacterial Cellulose Network from Kombucha Fermentation Impregnated with Emulsion-Polymerized Poly(methyl methacrylate) to Form Nanocomposite

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Group LEPAMAP, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Girona, EPS. Ed. PI. C/ Maria Aurelia Capmany 61, 17003 Girona, Spain
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Division of Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, SE 97187 Luleå, Sweden
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Design, Development and Product Innovation, Department Organization, Business Management and Product Design, University of Girona, C/ Maria Aurelia Capmany 61, 17003 Girona, Spain
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Mechanical & Industrial Engineering (MIE), University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada
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Engineering Materials, Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 41296 Göteborg, Sweden
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BIMATEC, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Girona, EPS. Ed. PI. C/ Maria Aurelia Capmany 61, 17003 Girona, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mirta I. Aranguren
Polymers 2021, 13(4), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040664 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 January 2021 / Revised: 15 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 February 2021 / Published: 23 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocellulose: Polymer Nanocomposites and all-Cellulose Materials)
The use of bio-based residues is one of the key indicators towards sustainable development goals. In this work, bacterial cellulose, a residue from the fermentation of kombucha tea, was tested as a reinforcing nanofiber network in an emulsion-polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The use of the nanofiber network is facilitating the formation of nanocomposites with well-dispersed nanofibers without using organic solvents or expensive methodologies. Moreover, the bacterial cellulose network structure can serve as a template for the emulsion polymerization of PMMA. The morphology, size, crystallinity, water uptake, and mechanical properties of the kombucha bacterial cellulose (KBC) network were studied. The results showed that KBC nanofibril diameters were ranging between 20–40 nm and the KBC was highly crystalline, >90%. The 3D network was lightweight and porous material, having a density of only 0.014 g/cm3. Furthermore, the compressed KBC network had very good mechanical properties, the E-modulus was 8 GPa, and the tensile strength was 172 MPa. The prepared nanocomposites with a KBC concentration of 8 wt.% were translucent with uniform structure confirmed with scanning electron microscopy study, and furthermore, the KBC network was homogeneously impregnated with the PMMA matrix. The mechanical testing of the nanocomposite showed high stiffness compared to the neat PMMA. A simple simulation of the tensile strength was used to understand the limited strain and strength given by the bacterial cellulose network. The excellent properties of the final material demonstrate the capability of a residue of kombucha fermentation as an excellent nanofiber template for use in polymer nanocomposites. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial cellulose; kombucha fermentation; PMMA; emulsion polymerization; mechanical composites; nanocomposites bacterial cellulose; kombucha fermentation; PMMA; emulsion polymerization; mechanical composites; nanocomposites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oliver-Ortega, H.; Geng, S.; Espinach, F.X.; Oksman, K.; Vilaseca, F. Bacterial Cellulose Network from Kombucha Fermentation Impregnated with Emulsion-Polymerized Poly(methyl methacrylate) to Form Nanocomposite. Polymers 2021, 13, 664. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040664

AMA Style

Oliver-Ortega H, Geng S, Espinach FX, Oksman K, Vilaseca F. Bacterial Cellulose Network from Kombucha Fermentation Impregnated with Emulsion-Polymerized Poly(methyl methacrylate) to Form Nanocomposite. Polymers. 2021; 13(4):664. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040664

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oliver-Ortega, Helena; Geng, Shiyu; Espinach, Francesc X.; Oksman, Kristiina; Vilaseca, Fabiola. 2021. "Bacterial Cellulose Network from Kombucha Fermentation Impregnated with Emulsion-Polymerized Poly(methyl methacrylate) to Form Nanocomposite" Polymers 13, no. 4: 664. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040664

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