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Article

Effects of Two Melt Extrusion Based Additive Manufacturing Technologies and Common Sterilization Methods on the Properties of a Medical Grade PLGA Copolymer

1
U1008 Controlled Drug Delivery Systems and Biomaterials, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille (CHU Lille), University of Lille, F-59000 Lille, France
2
UMR 9020–UMR-S 1277–Canther–Cancer Heterogeneity, Plasticity and Resistance to Therapies, Institut de Recherche contre le Cancer de Lille, University Lille, CNRS, Inserm, CHU Lille, F-59000 Lille, France
3
LATTICE MEDICAL, F-59120 Loos, France
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Service de Chirurgie Plastique Reconstructrice et Esthétique, CHU de Lille, F-59037 Lille, France
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Banque de Tissus, Centre de Biologie-Pathologie, CHU Lille, F-59000 Lille, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis García-Fernández
Polymers 2021, 13(4), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040572
Received: 30 January 2021 / Revised: 11 February 2021 / Accepted: 12 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Polymers for Biomedical Applications)
Although bioabsorbable polymers have garnered increasing attention because of their potential in tissue engineering applications, to our knowledge there are only a few bioabsorbable 3D printed medical devices on the market thus far. In this study, we assessed the processability of medical grade Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid (PLGA)85:15 via two additive manufacturing technologies: Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) and Direct Pellet Printing (DPP) to highlight the least destructive technology towards PLGA. To quantify PLGA degradation, its molecular weight (gel permeation chromatography (GPC)) as well as its thermal properties (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)) were evaluated at each processing step, including sterilization with conventional methods (ethylene oxide, gamma, and beta irradiation). Results show that 3D printing of PLGA on a DPP printer significantly decreased the number-average molecular weight (Mn) to the greatest extent (26% Mn loss, p < 0.0001) as it applies a longer residence time and higher shear stress compared to classic FFF (19% Mn loss, p < 0.0001). Among all sterilization methods tested, ethylene oxide seems to be the most appropriate, as it leads to no significant changes in PLGA properties. After sterilization, all samples were considered to be non-toxic, as cell viability was above 70% compared to the control, indicating that this manufacturing route could be used for the development of bioabsorbable medical devices. Based on our observations, we recommend using FFF printing and ethylene oxide sterilization to produce PLGA medical devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; sterilization; medical devices; bioabsorbable; polymer additive manufacturing; sterilization; medical devices; bioabsorbable; polymer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gradwohl, M.; Chai, F.; Payen, J.; Guerreschi, P.; Marchetti, P.; Blanchemain, N. Effects of Two Melt Extrusion Based Additive Manufacturing Technologies and Common Sterilization Methods on the Properties of a Medical Grade PLGA Copolymer. Polymers 2021, 13, 572. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040572

AMA Style

Gradwohl M, Chai F, Payen J, Guerreschi P, Marchetti P, Blanchemain N. Effects of Two Melt Extrusion Based Additive Manufacturing Technologies and Common Sterilization Methods on the Properties of a Medical Grade PLGA Copolymer. Polymers. 2021; 13(4):572. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040572

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gradwohl, Marion; Chai, Feng; Payen, Julien; Guerreschi, Pierre; Marchetti, Philippe; Blanchemain, Nicolas. 2021. "Effects of Two Melt Extrusion Based Additive Manufacturing Technologies and Common Sterilization Methods on the Properties of a Medical Grade PLGA Copolymer" Polymers 13, no. 4: 572. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040572

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