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Article

Cooperative Effects of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Sepiolite When Combined on Ionic Liquid Plasticised Chitosan Materials

by 1,2, 2,*,†, 3 and 2,*
1
College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
International Institute for Nanocomposites Manufacturing (IINM), WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
3
WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This author leads the research.
Academic Editor: Stefano Leporatti
Polymers 2021, 13(4), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040571
Received: 26 January 2021 / Revised: 8 February 2021 / Accepted: 10 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Clay Nano-composites II)
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and/or sepiolite (SPT) were thermomechanically mixed with un-plasticised chitosan and chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) blends plasticised with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]). Examination of the morphology of these materials indicates that SPT aggregates were reduced when CNCs or [C2mim][OAc] were present. Inclusion of CNCs and/or SPT had a greater effect on material properties when the matrices were un-plasticised. Addition of SPT or CNCs altered the crystalline structure of the un-plasticised chitosan matrix. Moreover, a combination of SPT and CNCs was more effective at suppressing re-crystallisation. Nonetheless, the mechanical properties and surface hydrophobicity were more related to CNC/SPT–biopolymer interactions. The un-plasticised bionanocomposites generally showed increased relaxation temperatures, enhanced tensile strength, and reduced surface wettability. For the [C2mim][OAc] plasticised matrices, the ionic liquid (IL) dominates the interactions with the biopolymers such that the effect of the nanofillers is diminished. However, for the [C2mim][OAc] plasticised chitosan/CMC matrix, CNCs and SPT acted synergistically suppressing re-crystallisation but resulting in increased tensile strength. View Full-Text
Keywords: polysaccharide plasticisation; biopolymer thermomechanical processing; biopolymer nanocomposites; nanoclay; cellulose nanocrystals; ionic liquid polysaccharide plasticisation; biopolymer thermomechanical processing; biopolymer nanocomposites; nanoclay; cellulose nanocrystals; ionic liquid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, P.; Xie, F.; Tang, F.; McNally, T. Cooperative Effects of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Sepiolite When Combined on Ionic Liquid Plasticised Chitosan Materials. Polymers 2021, 13, 571. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040571

AMA Style

Chen P, Xie F, Tang F, McNally T. Cooperative Effects of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Sepiolite When Combined on Ionic Liquid Plasticised Chitosan Materials. Polymers. 2021; 13(4):571. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040571

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Pei, Fengwei Xie, Fengzai Tang, and Tony McNally. 2021. "Cooperative Effects of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Sepiolite When Combined on Ionic Liquid Plasticised Chitosan Materials" Polymers 13, no. 4: 571. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13040571

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