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Review

3D/4D Printing of Polymers: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Stereolithography (SLA)

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Design Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel 45200, Nepal
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Faculty of Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenida Wai Long, Macau SAR, China
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Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371, Singapore
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Centre for Additive Manufacturing (CfAM), School of Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG8 1BB, UK
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Geoffrey R. Mitchell
Polymers 2021, 13(18), 3101; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183101
Received: 22 August 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 15 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials in 3D/4D Printing Technology)
Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing is a digital manufacturing process and offers virtually limitless opportunities to develop structures/objects by tailoring material composition, processing conditions, and geometry technically at every point in an object. In this review, we present three different early adopted, however, widely used, polymer-based 3D printing processes; fused deposition modelling (FDM), selective laser sintering (SLS), and stereolithography (SLA) to create polymeric parts. The main aim of this review is to offer a comparative overview by correlating polymer material-process-properties for three different 3D printing techniques. Moreover, the advanced material-process requirements towards 4D printing via these print methods taking an example of magneto-active polymers is covered. Overall, this review highlights different aspects of these printing methods and serves as a guide to select a suitable print material and 3D print technique for the targeted polymeric material-based applications and also discusses the implementation practices towards 4D printing of polymer-based systems with a current state-of-the-art approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; 4D printing; fused deposition modelling; selective laser sintering; stereolithography; polymers 3D printing; 4D printing; fused deposition modelling; selective laser sintering; stereolithography; polymers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kafle, A.; Luis, E.; Silwal, R.; Pan, H.M.; Shrestha, P.L.; Bastola, A.K. 3D/4D Printing of Polymers: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Stereolithography (SLA). Polymers 2021, 13, 3101. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183101

AMA Style

Kafle A, Luis E, Silwal R, Pan HM, Shrestha PL, Bastola AK. 3D/4D Printing of Polymers: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Stereolithography (SLA). Polymers. 2021; 13(18):3101. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183101

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kafle, Abishek, Eric Luis, Raman Silwal, Houwen M. Pan, Pratisthit L. Shrestha, and Anil K. Bastola 2021. "3D/4D Printing of Polymers: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Stereolithography (SLA)" Polymers 13, no. 18: 3101. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183101

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