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Review

The Life Cycle Assessment for Polylactic Acid (PLA) to Make It a Low-Carbon Material

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Center for Nanotechnology and Sustainability, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117581, Singapore
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Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Golestan University, P.O. Box 491888369, Gorgan 1575949138, Iran
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School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
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Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran
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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576, Singapore
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Structural and Fire Engineering Division, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Svetlana Batasheva
Polymers 2021, 13(11), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111854
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 27 May 2021 / Accepted: 1 June 2021 / Published: 2 June 2021
The massive plastic production worldwide leads to a global concern for the pollution made by the plastic wastes and the environmental issues associated with them. One of the best solutions is replacing the fossil-based plastics with bioplastics. Bioplastics such as polylactic acid (PLA) are biodegradable materials with less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. PLA is a biopolymer produced from natural resources with good mechanical and chemical properties, therefore, it is used widely in packaging, agriculture, and biomedical industries. PLA products mostly end up in landfills or composting. In this review paper, the existing life cycle assessments (LCA) for PLA were comprehensively reviewed and classified. According to the LCAs, the energy and materials used in the whole life cycle of PLA were reported. Finally, the GHG emissions of PLA in each stage of its life cycle, including feedstock acquisition and conversion, manufacturing of PLA products, the PLA applications, and the end of life (EoL) options, were described. The most energy-intensive stage in the life cycle of PLA is its conversion. By optimizing the conversion process of PLA, it is possible to make it a low-carbon material with less dependence on energy sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: polylactic acid; greenhouse gas; life cycle assessment; carbon dioxide; low carbon polylactic acid; greenhouse gas; life cycle assessment; carbon dioxide; low carbon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rezvani Ghomi, E.; Khosravi, F.; Saedi Ardahaei, A.; Dai, Y.; Neisiany, R.E.; Foroughi, F.; Wu, M.; Das, O.; Ramakrishna, S. The Life Cycle Assessment for Polylactic Acid (PLA) to Make It a Low-Carbon Material. Polymers 2021, 13, 1854. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111854

AMA Style

Rezvani Ghomi E, Khosravi F, Saedi Ardahaei A, Dai Y, Neisiany RE, Foroughi F, Wu M, Das O, Ramakrishna S. The Life Cycle Assessment for Polylactic Acid (PLA) to Make It a Low-Carbon Material. Polymers. 2021; 13(11):1854. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111854

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rezvani Ghomi, Erfan, Fatemeh Khosravi, Ali Saedi Ardahaei, Yunqian Dai, Rasoul E. Neisiany, Firoozeh Foroughi, Min Wu, Oisik Das, and Seeram Ramakrishna. 2021. "The Life Cycle Assessment for Polylactic Acid (PLA) to Make It a Low-Carbon Material" Polymers 13, no. 11: 1854. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13111854

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