Currently, materials scientists and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopists have easy access to high magnetic fields of approximately 10 T supplied by superconducting magnets. Neodymium magnets that generate magnetic fields of approximately 1 T are readily available for laboratory use and are widely used in daily life applications, such as mobile phones and electric vehicles. Such common access to magnetic fields—unexpected 30 years ago—has helped researchers discover new magnetic phenomena and use such phenomena to process diamagnetic materials. Although diamagnetism is well known, it is only during the last 30 years that researchers have applied magnetic processing to various classes of diamagnetic materials such as ceramics, biomaterials, and polymers. The magnetic effects that we report herein are largely attributable to the magnetic force, magnetic torque, and magnetic enthalpy that in turn, directly derive from the well-defined magnetic energy. An example of a more complex magnetic effect is orientation of crystalline polymers under an applied magnetic field; researchers do not yet fully understand the crystallization mechanism. Our review largely focuses on polymeric materials. Research topics such as magnetic effect on chiral recognition are interesting yet beyond our scope.
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