In this study, a new class of thermal insulation composites was prepared by blending a modified hollow glass microsphere (HGM) with furan resin. The particle dispersion between the microparticles and resin matrix was improved using 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxy silane (KH-570). Furthermore, the structure and morphology of the modified HGM were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, the effects of the modified HGM on the thermal insulation, flame retardancy, and thermal properties of the composites were investigated. The thermal conductivity of the composites was lower than that of the native furan resin. The minimum thermal conductivity of the composites was 0.0274 W/m·K; the flame retardancy of the composites improved, and the limiting oxygen index become a maximum of 31.6%, reaching the refractory material level. Furthermore, the thermal analysis of the composites demonstrated enhanced thermal stability. This study demonstrates that the composite material exhibited good thermal insulation performance and flame retardancy and that it can be applied in the field of thermal insulation.
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