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Open AccessArticle

Mechanical Behavior of Melt-Mixed 3D Hierarchical Graphene/Polypropylene Nanocomposites

Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Division of Engineering Materials, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
Innovation & Technology, Borealis AB, SE-444 86 Stenungsund, Sweden
Innovation & Technology, Borealis Polyolefine GmbH, St.-Peter-Straße 25, 4021 Linz, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1 TR, UK.
Polymers 2020, 12(6), 1309;
Received: 12 May 2020 / Revised: 2 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 8 June 2020
The mechanical properties of novel low percolation melt-mixed 3D hierarchical graphene/polypropylene nanocomposites are analyzed in this study. The analysis spans a broad range of techniques and time scales, from impact to tensile, dynamic mechanical behavior, and creep. The applicability of the time–temperature superposition principle and its limitations in the construction of the master curve for the isotactic polypropylene (iPP)-based graphene nanocomposites has been verified and presented. The Williams–Landel–Ferry method has been used to evaluate the dynamics and also Cole–Cole curves were presented to verify the thermorheological character of the nanocomposites. Short term (quasi-static) tensile tests, creep, and impact strength measurements were used to evaluate the load transfer efficiency. A significant increase of Young’s modulus with increasing filler content indicates reasonably good dispersion and adhesion between the iPP and the filler. The Young’s modulus results were compared with predicted modulus values using Halpin–Tsai model. An increase in brittleness resulting in lower impact strength values has also been recorded. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; nanocomposites; mechanical properties; time–temperature superposition graphene; nanocomposites; mechanical properties; time–temperature superposition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gaska, K.; Manika, G.C.; Gkourmpis, T.; Tranchida, D.; Gitsas, A.; Kádár, R. Mechanical Behavior of Melt-Mixed 3D Hierarchical Graphene/Polypropylene Nanocomposites. Polymers 2020, 12, 1309.

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