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Open AccessArticle

Doxycycline and Zinc Loaded Silica-Nanofibrous Polymers as Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration

1
Dental Materials Section, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Granada, Colegio Máximo de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Oral Surgery Section, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sevilla, Avicena s/n, 41009 Sevilla, Spain
3
University Dental School & Hospital/University College Cork, Wilton, T12 E8YV Cork, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(5), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12051201
Received: 20 April 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2020 / Accepted: 22 May 2020 / Published: 25 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials for Dental Applications)
The main target of bone tissue engineering is to design biomaterials that support bone regeneration and vascularization. Nanostructured membranes of (MMA)1-co-(HEMA)1/(MA)3-co-(HEA)2 loaded with 5% wt of SiO2-nanoparticles (HOOC-Si-Membrane) were doped with zinc (Zn-HOOC-Si-Membrane) or doxycycline (Dox-HOOC-Si-Membrane). Critical bone defects were effectuated on six New Zealand-bred rabbit skulls and covered with the membranes. After six weeks, the bone architecture was evaluated with micro computed tomography. Three histological analyses were utilized to analyse bone regeneration, including von Kossa silver nitrate, toluidine blue and fluorescence. All membrane-treated defects exhibited higher number of osteocytes and bone perimeter than the control group without the membrane. Zn-HOOC-Si-Membranes induced higher new bone and osteoid area than those treated with HOOC-Si-Membranes, and control group, respectively. Zn-HOOC-Si-Membranes and Dox-HOOC-Si-Membranes attained the lowest ratio M1 macrophages/M2 macrophages. Dox-HOOC-Si-Membranes caused the lowest number of osteoclasts, and bone density. At the trabecular new bone, Zn-HOOC-Si-Membranes produced the highest angiogenesis, bone thickness, connectivity, junctions and branches. Zn-HOOC-Si-Membranes enhanced biological activity, attained a balanced remodeling, and achieved the greatest regenerative efficiency after osteogenesis and angiogenesis assessments. The bone-integrated Zn-HOOC-Si-Membranes can be considered as bioactive modulators provoking a M2 macrophages (pro-healing cells) increase, being a potential biomaterial for promoting bone repair. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone regeneration; vascularization; macrophage; zinc; doxycycline; non-resorbable polymer; cells; silica bone regeneration; vascularization; macrophage; zinc; doxycycline; non-resorbable polymer; cells; silica
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MDPI and ACS Style

Toledano, M.; Toledano-Osorio, M.; Osorio, R.; Carrasco-Carmona, Á.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, J.-L.; Gutiérrez-Corrales, A.; Serrera-Figallo, M.-A.; Lynch, C.D.; Torres-Lagares, D. Doxycycline and Zinc Loaded Silica-Nanofibrous Polymers as Biomaterials for Bone Regeneration. Polymers 2020, 12, 1201.

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