Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Carboxylated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber/Epoxy/XNBR-grafted Halloysite Nanotubes Nanocomposites
Department of Polymer Processing, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran, Iran
Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gabriela Narutowicza 11/12, 80–233 Gdańsk, Poland
Departments of Resin and Additives, Institute for Color Science and Technology, P.O. Box 16765-654, Tehran, Iran
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(5), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12051192
Received: 20 April 2020 / Revised: 17 May 2020 / Accepted: 19 May 2020 / Published: 23 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Rubber Composites)
The effect of various amounts of carboxylated nitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR) functionalized halloysite nanotubes (XHNTs) on the cure characteristics, mechanical and swelling behavior of XNBR/epoxy compounds was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The morphology of the prepared XNBR/epoxy/XHNTs nanocomposites was imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of various XNBR-grafted nanotubes on the damping factor of nanocomposites were evaluated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The cure behavior characterization indicated a fall in the scorch time, but a rise in the cure rate with higher loading of XHNTs into the XNBR/epoxy nanocomposites. SEM micrographs of tensile fracture surfaces were indicative of a rougher fracture surface with a uniform dispersion state of nanotubes into the polymer matrix in the XNBR/epoxy/XHNTs nanocomposites. The stress–strain behavior studies of XNBR/epoxy/XHNTs nanocomposites showed a higher tensile strength up to 40% with 7 wt % XHNTs loading. The theoretical predictions of uniaxial tensile behavior of nanocomposites using Bergström–Boyce model revealed that some of the material parameters were considerably changed with the XHNTs loading. Furthermore, the used theoretical model precisely predicted the nonlinear large strain hyperelastic behavior of nanocomposites.