Next Article in Journal
Modulating the Mechanical Properties of Electrospun PHB/PCL Materials by Using Different Types of Collectors and Heat Sealing
Next Article in Special Issue
Preparation and Characterization of Condensed Tannin Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane (NIPU) Rigid Foams by Ambient Temperature Blowing
Previous Article in Journal
Recent Progress on Luminescent Metal-Organic Framework-Involved Hybrid Materials for Rapid Determination of Contaminants in Environment and Food
Previous Article in Special Issue
Measurement of the Shear Properties of Extruded Polystyrene Foam by In-Plane Shear and Asymmetric Four-Point Bending Tests
Open AccessArticle

Characterization and Preparation of Furanic-Glyoxal Foams

Yunnan key laboratory of wood adhesives and glue products, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China
ENSTIB-LERMAB, University of Lorraine, 27 rue Philippe Seguin, 88000 Epinal, France
LERMAB, University of Lorraine, 88000 Epinal, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(3), 692;
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 20 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Foam Composites)
Synthetic foams have become an essential industrial product for a great variety of applications. Furfuryl alcohol, as a biomass chemical, was reacted with glyoxal at room temperature to prepare furanic-glyoxal rigid foams, and p-toluenesulfonic acid was used as a catalyst to initiate the reaction. Foams with different molar ratios (furfuryl alcohol/glyoxal) were prepared in this work, and uniform cells foams have been obtained. Their compression resistance, 24-h water absorption, density, and other basic properties were tested. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cellular morphology of the foams prepared, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) helped to understand their thermal and combustion properties, and FTIR and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI ToF) mass spectroscopy to explain the structure of the resulting foams to clarify the reactions occurring during foaming. The results show that the compression resistance of furanic-glyoxal foams declined as the furfuryl alcohol/glyoxal ratio decreases also. SEM observations revealed that foams with open-cell were obtained when furfuryl alcohol was added in greater amounts, and more closed cell structures were formed as the proportion of glyoxal increased. TGA results showed that the initial ignition temperature of furanic-glyoxal foams is ~200 °C higher than that of wood, and the smaller comprehensive combustion index S (about 0.15 × 10−7 (%2 K−3 min−2)) indicates that the foam burns slowly and has poor flammability, that is, it is not easy to burn. View Full-Text
Keywords: furfuryl alcohol; glyoxal; rigid foams; combustion properties; MALDI-ToF; FTIR furfuryl alcohol; glyoxal; rigid foams; combustion properties; MALDI-ToF; FTIR
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Xi, X.; Pizzi, A.; Lei, H.; Du, G.; Zhou, X.; Lin, Y. Characterization and Preparation of Furanic-Glyoxal Foams. Polymers 2020, 12, 692.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop