Synthetic foams have become an essential industrial product for a great variety of applications. Furfuryl alcohol, as a biomass chemical, was reacted with glyoxal at room temperature to prepare furanic-glyoxal rigid foams, and p-toluenesulfonic acid was used as a catalyst to initiate the reaction. Foams with different molar ratios (furfuryl alcohol/glyoxal) were prepared in this work, and uniform cells foams have been obtained. Their compression resistance, 24-h water absorption, density, and other basic properties were tested. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cellular morphology of the foams prepared, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) helped to understand their thermal and combustion properties, and FTIR and Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI ToF) mass spectroscopy to explain the structure of the resulting foams to clarify the reactions occurring during foaming. The results show that the compression resistance of furanic-glyoxal foams declined as the furfuryl alcohol/glyoxal ratio decreases also. SEM observations revealed that foams with open-cell were obtained when furfuryl alcohol was added in greater amounts, and more closed cell structures were formed as the proportion of glyoxal increased. TGA results showed that the initial ignition temperature of furanic-glyoxal foams is ~200 °C higher than that of wood, and the smaller comprehensive combustion index S (about 0.15 × 10−7
)) indicates that the foam burns slowly and has poor flammability, that is, it is not easy to burn.
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