Next Article in Journal
Polyaniline Based Pt-Electrocatalyst for a Proton Exchanged Membrane Fuel Cell
Next Article in Special Issue
Effect of Cellulose Solvents on the Characteristics of Cellulose/Fe2O3 Hydrogel Microspheres as Enzyme Supports
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Carbon Black Nanofiller on Adhesion Properties of SBS Rubber Surfaces Treated by Low-Pressure Plasma
Previous Article in Special Issue
Efficient Extraction and Structural Characterization of Hemicellulose from Sugarcane Bagasse Pith
Open AccessArticle

Structural Features of Three Hetero-Galacturonans from Passiflora foetida Fruits and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Effects

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
Sericultural & Agri-Food Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Key Laboratory of Functional Foods, Ministry of Agriculture; Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing, Guangzhou 510610, China
Instituto de Investigacion en Ciencias de la Alimentacion CIAL (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 9, Campus de Cantoblanco, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(3), 615;
Received: 12 January 2020 / Revised: 1 March 2020 / Accepted: 5 March 2020 / Published: 8 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Polysaccharides)
Passiflora foetida is a horticultural plant and vital traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In our previous study, the characterization and immuno-enhancing effect of fruits polysaccharide 1 (PFP1), a water-eluted hetero-mannan from wild Passiflora foetida fruits, were investigated. Herein, another three salt-eluted novel polysaccharides, namely PFP2, PFP3, and PFP4, were obtained and structurally characterized. The results showed that PFP2, PFP3, and PFP4 were three structurally similar hetero-galacturonans with different molecular weights of 6.11 × 104, 4.37 × 104, and 3.48 × 105 g/mol, respectively. All three of these hetero-galacturonans are mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose (75.69%, 80.39%, and 74.30%, respectively), and other monosaccharides including mannose, fucose, glucose, ribose, xylose, and glucuronic acid (24.31%, 19.61, and 25.70%, respectively), although differences in their backbone structure exist. Additionally, immunomodulatory assay indicated that the three hetero-galacturonans possess the ability to promote the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in RAW264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Especially, PFP3 displayed a stronger enhancing effect than PFP2 and PFP4 at the minimum effective concentration. Therefore, the results suggested that the obtained three salt-eluted hetero-galacturonans, especially PFP3, could be utilized as immunomodulatory effectivity ingredients in nutritional/pharmaceutical industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: structural features; immunomodulatory effect; Passiflora foetida fruits; hetero-galacturonans structural features; immunomodulatory effect; Passiflora foetida fruits; hetero-galacturonans
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Song, Y.; Wen, P.; Hao, H.; Zhu, M.; Sun, Y.; Zou, Y.; Requena, T.; Huang, R.; Wang, H. Structural Features of Three Hetero-Galacturonans from Passiflora foetida Fruits and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Effects. Polymers 2020, 12, 615.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop