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Open AccessArticle

Structural Features of Three Hetero-Galacturonans from Passiflora foetida Fruits and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Effects

1
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety, College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Sericultural & Agri-Food Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Key Laboratory of Functional Foods, Ministry of Agriculture; Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Products Processing, Guangzhou 510610, China
3
Instituto de Investigacion en Ciencias de la Alimentacion CIAL (CSIC-UAM), Nicolas Cabrera, 9, Campus de Cantoblanco, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(3), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030615
Received: 12 January 2020 / Revised: 1 March 2020 / Accepted: 5 March 2020 / Published: 8 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Polysaccharides)
Passiflora foetida is a horticultural plant and vital traditional Chinese herbal medicine. In our previous study, the characterization and immuno-enhancing effect of fruits polysaccharide 1 (PFP1), a water-eluted hetero-mannan from wild Passiflora foetida fruits, were investigated. Herein, another three salt-eluted novel polysaccharides, namely PFP2, PFP3, and PFP4, were obtained and structurally characterized. The results showed that PFP2, PFP3, and PFP4 were three structurally similar hetero-galacturonans with different molecular weights of 6.11 × 104, 4.37 × 104, and 3.48 × 105 g/mol, respectively. All three of these hetero-galacturonans are mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose (75.69%, 80.39%, and 74.30%, respectively), and other monosaccharides including mannose, fucose, glucose, ribose, xylose, and glucuronic acid (24.31%, 19.61, and 25.70%, respectively), although differences in their backbone structure exist. Additionally, immunomodulatory assay indicated that the three hetero-galacturonans possess the ability to promote the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in RAW264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Especially, PFP3 displayed a stronger enhancing effect than PFP2 and PFP4 at the minimum effective concentration. Therefore, the results suggested that the obtained three salt-eluted hetero-galacturonans, especially PFP3, could be utilized as immunomodulatory effectivity ingredients in nutritional/pharmaceutical industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: structural features; immunomodulatory effect; Passiflora foetida fruits; hetero-galacturonans structural features; immunomodulatory effect; Passiflora foetida fruits; hetero-galacturonans
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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, Y.; Wen, P.; Hao, H.; Zhu, M.; Sun, Y.; Zou, Y.; Requena, T.; Huang, R.; Wang, H. Structural Features of Three Hetero-Galacturonans from Passiflora foetida Fruits and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Effects. Polymers 2020, 12, 615.

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