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Open AccessArticle

Investigation of Synthesis Mechanism, Optimal Hot-Pressing Conditions, and Curing Behavior of Sucrose and Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate Adhesive

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College of Furnishings and Industrial Design, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
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Laboratory of Sustainable Materials, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan
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Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China
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Jiangsu Center of Supervision & Testing on Green Degradable Material Quality, Nanjing 210019, China
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Zhejiang Shenghua Yunfeng Greeneo Co., Ltd., Deqing 313000, China
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College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(1), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12010216
Received: 11 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 15 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Polymer Synthesis)
In this study, a further investigation was carried out on the synthesis mechanism, optimal manufacturing conditions, and curing behavior of a sucrose-ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (SADP) adhesive. The results of 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed that SADP was composed of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), deoxyfructosazine (DOF), amino compounds, Schiff base, monosaccharides, and oligosaccharide. The optimal hot-pressing conditions were a hot-pressing temperature of 170 °C, a hot-pressing time of 7 min, and a spread rate of 120 g/m2. The wet shear strength of plywood bonded at optimal manufacturing conditions met the requirements of China National Standard (GB/T 9846-2015). Thermal analysis and insoluble mass proportion measurements showed that the main curing behavior of the SADP adhesive occurred at curing temperatures higher than 145 °C, and more than 50% insoluble mass was formed when the heating time was longer than 5 min. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that cross-linking of the cured adhesive was promoted by prolonging the heating time. In addition, pyrolysis gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) confirmed that the cured SADP adhesive was composed of furan and nitrogen-containing compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: eco-friendly adhesive; sucrose; ammonium dihydrogen phosphate; plywood eco-friendly adhesive; sucrose; ammonium dihydrogen phosphate; plywood
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Z.; Sakai, S.; Wu, D.; Chen, Z.; Zhu, N.; Gui, C.; Zhang, M.; Umemura, K.; Yong, Q. Investigation of Synthesis Mechanism, Optimal Hot-Pressing Conditions, and Curing Behavior of Sucrose and Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate Adhesive. Polymers 2020, 12, 216.

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