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Effect of Cellulose Nanofibrils and TEMPO-mediated Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Cellulose Nanofibril Composites

1
Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS, USA
2
HX5, LLC, Vicksburg, MS, USA
3
Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, 3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(7), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11071091
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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Abstract

Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are high aspect ratio, natural nanomaterials with high mechanical strength-to-weight ratio and promising reinforcing dopants in polymer nanocomposites. In this study, we used CNFs and oxidized CNFs (TOCNFs), prepared by a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation process, as reinforcing agents in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). Using high-shear mixing and doctor blade casting, we prepared free-standing composite films loaded with up to 5 wt % cellulose nanofibrils. For our processing conditions, all CNF/PVDF and TOCNF/PVDF films remain in the same crystalline phase as neat PVDF. In the as-prepared composites, the addition of CNFs on average increases crystallinity, whereas TOCNFs reduces it. Further, addition of CNFs and TOCNFs influences properties such as surface wettability, as well as thermal and mechanical behaviors of the composites. When compared to neat PVDF, the thermal stability of the composites is reduced. With regards to bulk mechanical properties, addition of CNFs or TOCNFs, generally reduces the tensile properties of the composites. However, a small increase (~18%) in the tensile modulus was observed for the 1 wt % TOCNF/PVDF composite. Surface mechanical properties, obtained from nanoindentation, show that the composites have enhanced performance. For the 5 wt % CNF/PVDF composite, the reduced modulus and hardness increased by ~52% and ~22%, whereas for the 3 wt % TOCNF/PVDF sample, the increase was ~23% and ~25% respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose nanofibrils; poly(vinylidene fluoride); solvent evaporation; surface wettability; mechanical properties cellulose nanofibrils; poly(vinylidene fluoride); solvent evaporation; surface wettability; mechanical properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Barnes, E.; Jefcoat, J.A.; Alberts, E.M.; McKechnie, M.A.; Peel, H.R.; Buchanan, J.P.; Weiss Jr., C.A.; Klaus, K.L.; Mimun, L.C.; Warner, C.M. Effect of Cellulose Nanofibrils and TEMPO-mediated Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride)/Cellulose Nanofibril Composites. Polymers 2019, 11, 1091.

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