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Comparative Analysis of Fluorinated Anions for Polypyrrole Linear Actuator Electrolytes

Conducting Polymers in Composites and Applications Research Group, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Intelligent Materials and Systems Lab, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 849;
Received: 14 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conducting Polymers)
PDF [2909 KB, uploaded 10 May 2019]


Either as salts or room temperature ionic liquids, fluorinated anion-based electrolytes have been a common choice for ionic electroactive polymer actuators, both linear and bending. In the present work, propylene carbonate solutions of four electrolytes of the three hugely popular anions—triflouromethanesulfonate, bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, and hexafluorophosphate were compared and evaluated in polypyrrole linear actuators. The actuation direction, the characteristics—performance relations influence the behavior of the actuators. Isotonic Electro-chemo-mechanical deformation (ECMD) measurements were performed to study the response of the PPy/DBS samples. The highest strain for pristine PPy/DBS linear actuators was found in range of 21% for LiTFSI, while TBAPF6 had the least cation involvement, suggesting the potential for application in durable and controllable actuators. Interesting cation effects on the actuation of the same anions (CF3SO3) were also observed. View Full-Text
Keywords: PPy/DBS; linear actuators; isotonic ECMD; four different electrolytes; actuation direction PPy/DBS; linear actuators; isotonic ECMD; four different electrolytes; actuation direction

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Khuyen, N.Q.; Zondaka, Z.; Harjo, M.; Torop, J.; Tamm, T.; Kiefer, R. Comparative Analysis of Fluorinated Anions for Polypyrrole Linear Actuator Electrolytes. Polymers 2019, 11, 849.

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