Next Article in Journal
Effects of Diisocyanate Structure and Disulfide Chain Extender on Hard Segmental Packing and Self-Healing Property of Polyurea Elastomers
Next Article in Special Issue
Polymerization Shrinkage Evaluation of Restorative Resin-Based Composites Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors
Previous Article in Journal
Thermal Analysis of Crystallization and Phase Transition in Novel Polyethylene Glycol Grafted Butene-1 Copolymers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ball Milling to Produce Composites Based of Natural Clinoptilolite as a Carrier of Salicylate in Bio-Based PA11
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Carbon-Based Aeronautical Epoxy Nanocomposites: Effectiveness of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in Investigating the Dispersion of Different Carbonaceous Nanoparticles

1
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 – 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
2
University of Dayton, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45440, USA
3
Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB-CNR), via Previati n. 1/E, 23900 Lecco, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(5), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050832
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 2 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials and Methods for New Technologies in Polymer Processing)
  |  
PDF [9665 KB, uploaded 8 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

The capability of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to characterize composite material interfaces can help in the design of new carbon-based nanocomposites by providing useful information on the structure–property relationship. In this paper, the potentiality of AFM is explored to investigate the dispersion and the morphological features of aeronautical epoxy resins loaded with several carbon nanostructured fillers. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal investigations of the formulated samples have also been performed. The FTIR results show that, among the examined nanoparticles, exfoliated graphite (EG) with a predominantly two-dimensional (2D) shape favors the hardening process of the epoxy matrix, increasing its reaction rate. As evidenced by the FTIR signal related to the epoxy stretching frequency (907 cm−1), the accelerating effect of the EG sample increases as the filler concentration increases. This effect, already observable for curing treatment of 60 min conducted at the low temperature of 125 °C, suggests a very fast opening of epoxy groups at the beginning of the cross-linking process. For all the analyzed samples, the percentage of the curing degree (DC) goes beyond 90%, reaching up to 100% for the EG-based nanocomposites. Besides, the addition of the exfoliated graphite enhances the thermostability of the samples up to about 370 °C, even in the case of very low EG percentages (0.05% by weight). View Full-Text
Keywords: epoxy nanocomposites; carbonaceous nanofillers; FTIR analysis; Thermosetting resins; exfoliated graphite; surface analysis; Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) epoxy nanocomposites; carbonaceous nanofillers; FTIR analysis; Thermosetting resins; exfoliated graphite; surface analysis; Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Raimondo, M.; Naddeo, C.; Vertuccio, L.; Lafdi, K.; Sorrentino, A.; Guadagno, L. Carbon-Based Aeronautical Epoxy Nanocomposites: Effectiveness of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in Investigating the Dispersion of Different Carbonaceous Nanoparticles. Polymers 2019, 11, 832.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top