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Enhancing Saltiness Perception Using Chitin Nanomaterials

Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, 2, Pei-Ning Road, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Polymers 2019, 11(4), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11040719
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 19 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modifications and Applications of Chitin/Chitosan)
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Abstract

In the present study, we prepared and characterized chitin nanomaterials with different diameters, lengths, and degree of deacetylation (DD), and investigated their capability for enhancing saltiness perception. Chitin was isolated from squid pens and transformed into chitin nanofiber (CNF), deacetylated chitin nanofiber (DACNF), and chitin nanocrystal (CNC) by ultrasonication, alkali treatment followed by ultrasonication and acid hydrolysis, respectively. The diameters of CNF, CNC and DACNF were 17.24 nm, 16.05 nm and 15.01 nm while the lengths were 1725.05 nm, 116.91 nm, and 1806.60 nm, respectively. The aspect ratios of CNF and DACNF were much higher than that of CNC. The crystalline indices of CNF and CNC were lower than that of original β-chitin, suggesting that ultrasonication and acid hydrolysis might change the molecular arrangement in crystalline region of chitin. The zeta-potentials were between 19.73 nV and 30.08 mV of chitin nanomaterials in distilled water. Concentrations of chitin nanomaterials (40–74 μg/mL) showed minimal effect on zeta-potential, whereas increasing the level of NaCl reduced the zeta-potential of solution. Moreover, NaCl solution (0.3%) with chitin nanomaterials addition produced significant higher saltiness perception than that of solution with NaCl alone. Therefore, chitin nanomaterials may be promising saltiness enhancers in the food industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitin; nanofiber; nanocrystal; saltiness perception; sodium reduction chitin; nanofiber; nanocrystal; saltiness perception; sodium reduction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tsai, W.-C.; Wang, S.-T.; Chang, K.-L.B.; Tsai, M.-L. Enhancing Saltiness Perception Using Chitin Nanomaterials. Polymers 2019, 11, 719.

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