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Polymers 2019, 11(3), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11030497

Chitosan Grafted Adsorbents for Diclofenac Pharmaceutical Compound Removal from Single-Component Aqueous Solutions and Mixtures

1
Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR–541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Hephaestus Advanced Laboratory, Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology, GR-654 04 Kavala, Greece
4
Laboratory of General and Inorganic Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications)
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Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the synthesis of some cross-linked carboxyl-grafted chitosan derivatives to be used as selective adsorbents for diclofenac (DCF) pharmaceutical compounds from aqueous mixtures. Four different materials were synthesized using succinic anhydride (CsSUC), maleic anhydride (CsMAL), itaconic acid (CsITA), and trans-aconitic acid (CsTACON) as grafting agents. After synthesis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were performed before and after DCF adsorption. In addition, a complete adsorption evaluation was carried out for all materials studying some important parameters. The optimum pH was 4; the amino groups of DCF can be protonated at pH = 4 (–NH+), so this groups can easily attract the clear negatively carboxyl moieties (–COO) of the chitosan adsorbents. The Qm for CsTACON was higher than those of the other materials, at all temperatures studied. By altering the temperature from 25 to 35 °C, an increase (16%) of Qm (from 84.56 to 98.34 mg g−1) was noted, while similar behavior was revealed after a further increase of temperature from 35 to 45 °C, improving by 5% (from 98.34 to 102.75 mg g−1). All isotherms were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) models). In addition, a kinetic model was proposed taking into account not only the interactions but also the diffusivity of the molecule (DCF) into the polymeric network. The behavior of the prepared chitosan materials in simultaneously removing other compounds (synergetic or antagonistic) was also evaluated by experiments performed in mixtures. DCF presented the highest removal from the mixture in the order: CsTACON (92.8%) > CsITA (89.5%) > CsSUC (80.9%) > CsMAL (66.2%) compared to other pharmaceutical compounds (salicylic acid, ibuprofen and ketoprofen). Desorption was achieved by using different eluants (either water or organic). The highest desorption ability was found for acetone (100% for CsTACON, CsSUC, CsMAL and 77% for CsITA) for all materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; adsorption; pharmaceuticals; diclofenac; wastewaters chitosan; adsorption; pharmaceuticals; diclofenac; wastewaters
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tzereme, A.; Christodoulou, E.; Kyzas, G.Z.; Kostoglou, M.; Bikiaris, D.N.; Lambropoulou, D.A. Chitosan Grafted Adsorbents for Diclofenac Pharmaceutical Compound Removal from Single-Component Aqueous Solutions and Mixtures. Polymers 2019, 11, 497.

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