: The nanomaterial-integrated chitinous polymers have promoted the technological advancements in personal health care apparatus, particularly for enzyme-based devices like the glucometer. Chitin and chitosan, being natural biopolymers, have attracted great attention in the field of biocatalysts engineering. Their remarkable tunable properties have been explored for enhancing enzyme performance and biosensor advancements. Currently, incorporation of nanomaterials in chitin and chitosan-based biosensors are also widely exploited for enzyme stability and interference-free detection. Therefore, in this review, we focus on various innovative multi-faceted strategies used for the fabrication of biological assemblies using chitinous biomaterial interface. We aim to summarize the current development on chitin/chitosan and their nano-architecture scaffolds for interdisciplinary biosensor research, especially for analytes like glucose. This review article will be useful for understanding the overall multifunctional aspects and progress of chitin and chitosan-based polysaccharides in the food, biomedical, pharmaceutical, environmental, and other diverse applications.
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