Next Article in Journal
Dual-Layer Approach toward Self-Healing and Self-Cleaning Polyurethane Thermosets
Previous Article in Journal
Moisture Absorption in Polymer Composites Reinforced with Vegetable Fiber: A Three-Dimensional Investigation via Langmuir Model
Open AccessArticle

Time–Temperature–Plasticization Superposition Principle: Predicting Creep of a Plasticized Epoxy

1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
SINTEF Industry, Materials and Nanotechnology, 0314 Oslo, Norway
3
Strukturplast AS, 6823 Sandane, Norway
4
Institute of Polymer Composites, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), 21073 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(11), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11111848
Received: 17 October 2019 / Revised: 6 November 2019 / Accepted: 8 November 2019 / Published: 9 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nordic Polymer Days)
Long-term creep properties and the effect of water are important for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials used in offshore applications. Epoxies are often used as a matrix material in such composites. A typical design lifetime of offshore FRP structures is 25 or more years in direct contact with water leading to some deterioration of the material properties. Knowing and predicting the extent of the material property deterioration in water is of great interest for designers and users of the offshore FRP structures. It has been established that the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP) is a useful tool for estimating changes in properties of polymer materials at long times or extreme temperatures. In this work, a time–temperature–plasticization superposition principle (TTPSP) is described and used for predicting the long-term creep behavior of an epoxy compound. The studied epoxy does not degrade chemically via hydrolysis or chain scission but is negatively affected by plasticization with water. The methodology enables prediction of the long-term viscoelastic behavior of amorphous polymers at temperatures below the glass transition (Tg) using short-term creep experimental data. The results also indicate that it is possible to estimate the creep behavior of the plasticized polymer based on the short-term creep data of the respective dry material and the difference between Tg values of dry polymer and plasticized polymer. The methodology is useful for accelerated testing and for predicting the time-dependent mechanical properties of a plasticized polymer below the glass transition temperature. View Full-Text
Keywords: epoxy; creep; water; plasticization; viscoelastic; master curve; time–temperature superposition; time–temperature–plasticization superposition; accelerated testing; methodology epoxy; creep; water; plasticization; viscoelastic; master curve; time–temperature superposition; time–temperature–plasticization superposition; accelerated testing; methodology
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Krauklis, A.E.; Akulichev, A.G.; Gagani, A.I.; Echtermeyer, A.T. Time–Temperature–Plasticization Superposition Principle: Predicting Creep of a Plasticized Epoxy. Polymers 2019, 11, 1848.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop