Cartilage is an important tissue contributing to the structure and function of support and protection in the human body. There are many challenges for tissue cartilage repair. However, 3D bio-printing of osteochondral scaffolds provides a promising solution. This study involved preparing bio-inks with different proportions of chitosan (Cs), Gelatin (Gel), and Hyaluronic acid (HA). The rheological properties of each bio-ink was used to identify the optimal bio-ink for printing. To improve the mechanical properties of the bio-scaffold, Graphene (GR) with a mass ratio of 0.024, 0.06, and 0.1% was doped in the bio-ink. Bio-scaffolds were prepared using 3D printing technology. The mechanical strength, water absorption rate, porosity, and degradation rate of the bio-scaffolds were compared to select the most suitable scaffold to support the proliferation and differentiation of cells. P3 Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were inoculated onto the bio-scaffolds to study the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. The results of SEM showed that the Cs/Gel/HA scaffolds with a GR content of 0, 0.024, 0.06, and 0.1% had a good three-dimensional porous structure and interpenetrating pores, and a porosity of more than 80%. GR was evenly distributed on the scaffold as observed by energy spectrum analyzer and polarizing microscope. With increasing GR content, the mechanical strength of the scaffold was enhanced, and pore walls became thicker and smoother. BMSCs were inoculated on the different scaffolds. The cells distributed and extended well on Cs/Gel/HA/GR scaffolds. Compared to traditional methods in tissue-engineering, this technique displays important advantages in simulating natural cartilage with the ability to finely control the mechanical and chemical properties of the scaffold to support cell distribution and proliferation for tissue repair.
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