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Preparation of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex and Its Application as an Intumescent Flame Retardant for Epoxy

1
School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Gehu Road 1, Changzhou 213164, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei 230026, China
3
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Gehu Road 1, Changzhou 213164, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010071
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclodextrin-Containing Polymers)
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Abstract

A new P-N containing the flame retardant, which was namely N,N′-dibutyl-phosphate diamide (DBPDA), was synthesized and it was assembled into the cavity of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to form an inclusion complex (IC). The structure and properties of IC were characterized by Fourier transform infraredspectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). 1H NMR and SEM-EDS were also used to identify the molar ratio of β-CD/DBPDA in IC and the results from the analyses indicated that their molar ratio was 1:1. In order to test the flame retardant effect of IC, it was added to epoxy (EP). IC was proposed to be able to act as an intumescent flame retardant (IFR) system in EP through a combination of β-CD and DBPDA properties during the combustion process. β-CD is a biomass carbon source, which has the advantages of environmental protection and low cost. Furthermore, DBPDA is both a source of acid and gas. When IC was heated, IC had the advantage of acting as both a carbon source and foam forming agent, while the DBPDA component were able to directly generate phosphoric acid and NH3 in situ. The impact of IC in low additive amounts on flame retardancy of EP was studied by the cone calorimeter test. When only 3 wt % IC was incorporated, the peak values of heat release rate (pHRR) and smoke production rate (pSPR) of EP were reduced by 22.9% and 33.3% respectively, which suggested that IC could suppress the heat and smoke release efficiently. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-cyclodextrin; inclusion; flame retardant; epoxy β-cyclodextrin; inclusion; flame retardant; epoxy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shan, X.; Jiang, K.; Li, J.; Song, Y.; Han, J.; Hu, Y. Preparation of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex and Its Application as an Intumescent Flame Retardant for Epoxy. Polymers 2019, 11, 71.

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