Next Article in Journal
Preparation and Characterization of Hydrophobically Grafted Starches by In Situ Solid Phase Polymerization
Next Article in Special Issue
Cavity Closure of 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin: Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Previous Article in Journal
The First Synthesis of Periodic and Alternating Glycopolymers by RAFT Polymerization: A Novel Synthetic Pathway for Glycosaminoglycan Mimics
Previous Article in Special Issue
Removal of Aromatic Chlorinated Pesticides from Aqueous Solution Using β-Cyclodextrin Polymers Decorated with Fe3O4 Nanoparticles
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Preparation of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex and Its Application as an Intumescent Flame Retardant for Epoxy

School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Gehu Road 1, Changzhou 213164, China
State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Jinzhai Road 96, Hefei 230026, China
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Gehu Road 1, Changzhou 213164, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 71;
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 December 2018 / Published: 5 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclodextrin-Containing Polymers)
PDF [5468 KB, uploaded 5 January 2019]
  |     |  


A new P-N containing the flame retardant, which was namely N,N′-dibutyl-phosphate diamide (DBPDA), was synthesized and it was assembled into the cavity of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to form an inclusion complex (IC). The structure and properties of IC were characterized by Fourier transform infraredspectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDS), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). 1H NMR and SEM-EDS were also used to identify the molar ratio of β-CD/DBPDA in IC and the results from the analyses indicated that their molar ratio was 1:1. In order to test the flame retardant effect of IC, it was added to epoxy (EP). IC was proposed to be able to act as an intumescent flame retardant (IFR) system in EP through a combination of β-CD and DBPDA properties during the combustion process. β-CD is a biomass carbon source, which has the advantages of environmental protection and low cost. Furthermore, DBPDA is both a source of acid and gas. When IC was heated, IC had the advantage of acting as both a carbon source and foam forming agent, while the DBPDA component were able to directly generate phosphoric acid and NH3 in situ. The impact of IC in low additive amounts on flame retardancy of EP was studied by the cone calorimeter test. When only 3 wt % IC was incorporated, the peak values of heat release rate (pHRR) and smoke production rate (pSPR) of EP were reduced by 22.9% and 33.3% respectively, which suggested that IC could suppress the heat and smoke release efficiently. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-cyclodextrin; inclusion; flame retardant; epoxy β-cyclodextrin; inclusion; flame retardant; epoxy

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shan, X.; Jiang, K.; Li, J.; Song, Y.; Han, J.; Hu, Y. Preparation of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex and Its Application as an Intumescent Flame Retardant for Epoxy. Polymers 2019, 11, 71.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top