Next Article in Journal
Novel Intumescent Flame Retardant Masterbatch Prepared through Different Processes and Its Application in EPDM/PP Thermoplastic Elastomer: Thermal Stability, Flame Retardancy, and Mechanical Properties
Next Article in Special Issue
Valorization of Industrial Lignin as Biobased Carbon Source in Fire Retardant System for Polyamide 11 Blends
Previous Article in Journal
Synthesis of Diblock Polyampholyte PAMPS-b-PMAPTAC and Its Adsorption on Bentonite
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fire Phenomena of Rigid Polyurethane Foams
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Investigation of the Flammability and Thermal Stability of Halogen-Free Intumescent System in Biopolymer Composites Containing Biobased Carbonization Agent and Mechanism of Their Char Formation

Faculty of Science and Engineering, Maastricht University, Urmonderbaan 22, 6167 RD Geleen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11010048
Received: 20 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 30 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flame Retardancy of Polymeric Materials)
  |  
PDF [2374 KB, uploaded 30 December 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Starch, being a polyhydric compound with its natural charring ability, is an ideal candidate to serve as a carbonization agent in an intumescent system. This charring ability of starch, if accompanied by an acidic source, can generate an effective intumescent flame retardant (IFR) system, but the performance of starch-based composites in an IFR system has not been tested in detail. Here, we describe a PLA-based IFR system consisting of ammonium polyphosphate (APP) as acidic source and cornstarch as carbon source. We prepared different formulations by melt compounding followed by molding into sheets by hot pressing. The thermal behavior and surface morphology of the composites was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy respectively. We also conducted limiting oxygen index (LOI), UL-94, and cone calorimetry tests to characterize the flame-retardant properties. Cone calorimetry revealed a 66% reduction in the peak heat release rate of the IFR composites compared to pure PLA and indicated the development of an intumescent structure by leaving a residual mass of 43% relative to the initial mass of the sample. A mechanism of char formation has also been discussed in detail. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopolymer composites; carbonization agent; thermal analysis; flame retardancy; char formation biopolymer composites; carbonization agent; thermal analysis; flame retardancy; char formation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Maqsood, M.; Seide, G. Investigation of the Flammability and Thermal Stability of Halogen-Free Intumescent System in Biopolymer Composites Containing Biobased Carbonization Agent and Mechanism of Their Char Formation. Polymers 2019, 11, 48.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top