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Polymers 2018, 10(8), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10080878

Bacteriostatic Activity of LLDPE Nanocomposite Embedded with Sol–Gel Synthesized TiO2/ZnO Coupled Oxides at Various Ratios

1
School of Materials & Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang 14300, Malaysia
2
Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Pulau Pinang 13200, Malaysia
3
Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals (IPHARM), National Institute of Biotechnology Malaysia, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Bukit Gambir, Gelugor, Pulau Pinang 11700, Malaysia
4
Department of Environmental Science, School of Science, Institute of Technology Sligo, Ash Lane, F91 YW50 Sligo, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
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Abstract

Metal oxide-polymer nanocomposite has been proven to have selective bactericidal effects against the main and common pathogens (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli)) that can cause harmful infectious diseases. As such, this study looked into the prospect of using TiO2/ZnO with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) to inactivate S. aureus and E. coli. The physical, structural, chemical, mechanical, and antibacterial properties of the nanocomposite were investigated in detail in this paper. The production of reactive species, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH), holes (h+), superoxide anion radicals (O2¯), and zinc ion (Zn2+), released from the nanocomposite were quantified to elucidate the underlying antibacterial mechanisms. LLDPE/25T75Z with TiO2/ZnO (1:3) nanocomposite displayed the best performance that inactivated S. aureus and E. coli by 95% and 100%, respectively. The dominant reactive active species and the zinc ion release toward the superior antibacterial effect of nanocomposite are discussed. This work does not only offer depiction of the effective element required for antimicrobial biomedical appliances, but also the essential structural characteristics to enhance water uptake to expedite photocatalytic activity of LLDPE/metal oxide nanocomposite for long term application. View Full-Text
Keywords: LLDPE nanocomposites; TiO2/ZnO nanoparticles; bacteriostatic activity; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli LLDPE nanocomposites; TiO2/ZnO nanoparticles; bacteriostatic activity; Staphylococcus aureus; Escherichia coli
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Saharudin, K.A.; Sreekantan, S.; Basiron, N.; Khor, Y.L.; Harun, N.H.; S. M. N. Mydin, R.B.; Md Akil, H.; Seeni, A.; Vignesh, K. Bacteriostatic Activity of LLDPE Nanocomposite Embedded with Sol–Gel Synthesized TiO2/ZnO Coupled Oxides at Various Ratios. Polymers 2018, 10, 878.

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