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Polymers 2018, 10(7), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym10070760

Drug Release Properties of Diflunisal from Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembled κ-Carrageenan/Chitosan Nanocapsules: Effect of Deposited Layers

1
Departamento de Investigación en Polímeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora, Mexico
2
Rubio Pharma y Asociados S.A. de C.V., 83210 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
3
Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Metalurgia, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora, Mexico
4
Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo 83000, Sonora, Mexico
5
Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, 31080 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract

Engineering of multifunctional drug nanocarriers combining stability and good release properties remains a great challenge. In this work, natural polymers κ-carrageenan (κ-CAR) and chitosan (CS) were deposited onto olive oil nanoemulsion droplets (NE) via layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly to study the release mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory diflunisal (DF) as a lipophilic drug model. The nano-systems were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential (ζ-potential) measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the NE-coating with polymer layers. In addition, kinetic release studies of DF were developed by the dialysis diffusion bag technique. Mathematical models were applied to investigate the release mechanisms. The results showed that stable and suitably sized nanocapsules (~300 nm) were formed. Also, the consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolytes by charge reversal was evidenced. More interestingly, the drug release mechanism varied depending on the number of layers deposited. The nanosized systems containing up to two layers showed anomalous transport and first order kinetics. Formulations with three and four layers exhibited Case II transport releasing diflunisal with zero order kinetics. Hence, our results suggest that these polyelectrolyte nanocapsules have great potential as a multifunctional nanocarrier for drug delivery applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyelectrolyte; kinetic models; chitosan; carrageenan; layer-by-layer; self-assembly; diflunisal; release mechanisms; nanoemulsion polyelectrolyte; kinetic models; chitosan; carrageenan; layer-by-layer; self-assembly; diflunisal; release mechanisms; nanoemulsion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rochín-Wong, S.; Rosas-Durazo, A.; Zavala-Rivera, P.; Maldonado, A.; Martínez-Barbosa, M.E.; Vélaz, I.; Tánori, J. Drug Release Properties of Diflunisal from Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembled κ-Carrageenan/Chitosan Nanocapsules: Effect of Deposited Layers. Polymers 2018, 10, 760.

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