Next Article in Journal
Partially Renewable Poly(butylene 2,5-furandicarboxylate-co-isophthalate) Copolyesters Obtained by ROP
Next Article in Special Issue
Synthetic Glycopolypeptide Micelle for Targeted Drug Delivery to Hepatic Carcinoma
Previous Article in Journal
Preparation of PLGA/MWCNT Composite Nanofibers by Airflow Bubble-Spinning and Their Characterization
Previous Article in Special Issue
Thermoresponsive Hydrogels and Their Biomedical Applications: Special Insight into Their Applications in Textile Based Transdermal Therapy
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Polymers 2018, 10(5), 482;

Reconfigurable Shape Memory and Self-Welding Properties of Epoxy Phenolic Novolac/Cashew Nut Shell Liquid Composites Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

Department of Chemical Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Division of Industrial Engineering Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Rattanakosin, Wang Klai Kang, Won Campus, Prachuap Khiri Khan 77110, Thailand
Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1-E4-5, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 8 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Polymers)
Full-Text   |   PDF [14192 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  


Conventional shape memory polymers (SMPs) can memorize their permanent shapes. However, these SMPs cannot reconfigure their original shape to obtain a desirable geometry owing to permanent chemically or physically crosslinked networks. To overcome this limitation, novel SMPs that can be reconfigured via bond exchange reactions (BERs) have been developed. In this study, polymer composites consisting of epoxy phenolic novolac (EPN) and bio-based cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) reinforced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared. The obtained composites exhibited shape memory and self-welding properties, and their shapes could be reconfigured via BERs. Their shape memory mechanisms were investigated using variable-temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis. The EPN/CNSL composite containing 0.3 wt % CNTs showed the highest shape fixity and shape recovery ratio. Furthermore, shape memory behavior induced by irradiation of near-infrared (NIR) light was also observed. All samples showed high shape recovery ratios of nearly 100% over five cycles, and increasing the CNT content shortened the recovery time remarkably. The ability of shape reconfiguration and stress relaxation affected the photo-induced shape memory properties of reshaped samples. Additionally, the self-welding properties were also influenced by stress relaxation. The hindrance of stress relaxation caused by the CNTs resulted in a decrease in adhesive fracture energy (Gc). However, the Gc values of EPN/CNSL composites were comparable to those of epoxy vitrimers. These results revealed that the material design concepts of thermal- and photo-induced shape memory, shape reconfiguration, and self-welding were combined in the EPN/CNSL composites, which could be feasible method for advanced smart material applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: shape memory; stress relaxation; welding/joining; thermal properties shape memory; stress relaxation; welding/joining; thermal properties

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kasemsiri, P.; Lorwanishpaisarn, N.; Pongsa, U.; Ando, S. Reconfigurable Shape Memory and Self-Welding Properties of Epoxy Phenolic Novolac/Cashew Nut Shell Liquid Composites Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes. Polymers 2018, 10, 482.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top