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Crystals 2019, 9(3), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9030158

Experimental Conditions for the Stabilization of the Lyotropic Biaxial Nematic Mesophase

1
Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Golkoy, Bolu 14030, Turkey
2
Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, 1371, São Paulo-SP 05508-090, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 19 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Lyotropic Liquid Crystals)
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Abstract

Nematic phases are some of the most common phases among the lyotropic liquid crystalline structures. They have been widely investigated during last decades. In early studies, two uniaxial nematic phases (discotic, ND, and calamitic, NC) were identified. After the discovery of the third one, named biaxial nematic phase (NB) in 1980, however, some controversies in the stability of biaxial nematic phases began and still continue in the literature. From the theoretical point of view, the existence of a biaxial nematic phase is well established. This review aims to bring information about the historical development of those phases considering the early studies and then summarize the recent studies on how to stabilize different nematic phases from the experimental conditions, especially, choosing the suitable constituents of lyotropic mixtures. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lyotropic liquid crystals; uniaxial nematic phase; biaxial nematic phase; stabilization of nematic phases; micelle; surfactants Lyotropic liquid crystals; uniaxial nematic phase; biaxial nematic phase; stabilization of nematic phases; micelle; surfactants
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Akpinar, E.; Figueiredo Neto, A.M. Experimental Conditions for the Stabilization of the Lyotropic Biaxial Nematic Mesophase. Crystals 2019, 9, 158.

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