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Avalanches in Compressed Sandstone: Crackling Noise under Confinement

School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
Departament de Física de la Matèria Condensada, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martíi Franquès, 1. 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EQ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(11), 582;
Received: 12 October 2019 / Revised: 3 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 7 November 2019
The acoustic emission, AE, from avalanches of local cracks and microstructural changes of sandstone under confined compression have been reported. These avalanches soften the underlying minerals and play a key role as indicators for the prediction of geo-engineering disasters, such as mining collapses, rock outbursts caused by high ground stress, and man-made quakes by fracking. Compressed sandstone is a model material for the investigation of avalanches. The avalanche energies, amplitudes, and waiting times show the probability distributions that allow us to distinguish between three compression stages; namely, (I) pre-failure, (II) correlated failure, and (III) post-failure. The energy of stage I and stage II is power-law distributed and scale invariant, while post-failure experiments show power laws with high exponential damping (friction). The scaling behavior is close to the predictions of a mean-field (MF) model (stage II) and a force-integrated mean-field model (stage I). Confinement shifts the value of the energy exponent closer to the MF prediction. Omori’s law and waiting time distributions are independent of stress during the compression; their scaling exponents are very similar to those found in seismological studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: sandstone; acoustic emission; crackling noise; mean-field model sandstone; acoustic emission; crackling noise; mean-field model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, Y.; Liu, H.; Xie, K.; Salje, E.K.; Jiang, X. Avalanches in Compressed Sandstone: Crackling Noise under Confinement. Crystals 2019, 9, 582.

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