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Crystals 2018, 8(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst8040164

Solid Phases Precipitating in Artificial Urine in the Absence and Presence of Bacteria Proteus mirabilis—A Contribution to the Understanding of Infectious Urinary Stone Formation

1
Institute of Physics, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Wólczańska 219, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
2
Department of Molecular Physics, Lodz University of Technology, ul. Żeromskiego 116, 90-924 Łódź, Poland
3
Institute of Chemistry, Environment Protection and Biotechnology, Jan Długosz University of Częstochowa, ul. Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
4
Department of Biology of Bacteria, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, ul. Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Biomolecular Crystals)
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Abstract

Magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate, called struvite, is the dominant component of infectious urinary stones. In addition to struvite, infectious urinary stones include solid phases with poor crystallinity as well as amorphous matter. This article is devoted to the analysis of these solid phases, because they have not been characterized well until now. The solid phases tested were obtained from artificial urine in the absence and presence of Proteus mirabilis. The solid phases were characterized by different techniques (X-ray Diffraction, Energy Dispersive X-ray, Scanning Electron Microscopy, as well as Raman and Infrared Spectroscopies). According to the results these phases are carbonate apatite (CA), hydroxylapatite (HAP), amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and/or amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate (ACCP). Carbonate apatite and hydroxylapatite may occur in non-stoichiometric forms, i.e., various anions can be substituted for CO32−, OH, and PO43− groups in them. The non-stoichiometry of carbonate apatite and hydroxylapatite also implies a deficiency of calcium ions, i.e., calcium ions may be partially replaced by other cations. Experimental techniques and chemical speciation analysis demonstrate that the presence of magnesium influences the formation of CA and HAP. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonate apatite; hydroxylapatite; amorphous calcium carbonate; amorphous calcium phosphate; amorphous calcium phosphate; amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate; amorphous precursors; infectious urinary stones carbonate apatite; hydroxylapatite; amorphous calcium carbonate; amorphous calcium phosphate; amorphous calcium phosphate; amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate; amorphous precursors; infectious urinary stones
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Prywer, J.; Kozanecki, M.; Mielniczek-Brzóska, E.; Torzewska, A. Solid Phases Precipitating in Artificial Urine in the Absence and Presence of Bacteria Proteus mirabilis—A Contribution to the Understanding of Infectious Urinary Stone Formation. Crystals 2018, 8, 164.

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