Next Article in Journal
Doping Liquid Crystal Cells with Photocurable Monomer via Holographic Exposure to Realize Optical-Scattering-Free Infrared Phase Modulators with Fast Response Time
Next Article in Special Issue
Recent Insights into the Crystallization Process; Protein Crystal Nucleation and Growth Peculiarities; Processes in the Presence of Electric Fields
Previous Article in Journal
Shape-Controlled TiCx Particles Fabricated by Combustion Synthesis in the Cu-Ti-C System
Previous Article in Special Issue
Electro-Infiltration of Cytochrome C into a Porous Silicon Network, and Its Effect on Nucleation and Protein Crystallization—Studies of the Electrical Properties of Porous Silicon Layer-Protein Systems for Applications in Electron-Transfer Biomolecular Devices
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Crystals 2017, 7(7), 206;

Crystallization under an External Electric Field: A Case Study of Glucose Isomerase

National Syncrhotron Light Source, Upton, NY 11973, USA
Accenture, NewYork, NY 10105, USA
International Imaging Materials—IIMAK, Amherst, NY 14228, USA
National Syncrhotron Light Source II, Upton, NY 11973, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abel Moreno
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Crystallization under the Presence of an Electric Field)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3179 KB, uploaded 6 July 2017]   |  


Electric fields have been employed to promote macromolecular crystallization for several decades. Although crystals grown in electric fields seem to present higher diffraction quality, these methods are not widespread. For most configurations, electrodes are in direct contact with the protein solution. Here, we propose a configuration that can be easily extended to standard crystallization methods for which the electrodes are not in direct contact with the protein solution. Furthermore, the proposed electrode configuration supplies an external DC electric field. Glucose Isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus crystals were grown at room temperature using the microbatch method in the presence of 1, 2, 4, and 6 kV. Several crystallization trials were carried out for reproducibility and statistical analysis purposes. The comparison with crystals grown in the absence of electric fields showed that crystallization in the presence of electric fields increases the size of crystals, while decreasing the number of nucleations. X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystals showed that those grown in the presence of electric fields are of higher crystal quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: crystallization; macromolecular crystallography; external DC electric field; microbatch method crystallization; macromolecular crystallography; external DC electric field; microbatch method

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rubin, E.; Owen, C.; Stojanoff, V. Crystallization under an External Electric Field: A Case Study of Glucose Isomerase. Crystals 2017, 7, 206.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Crystals EISSN 2073-4352 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top