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Crystals 2017, 7(10), 302;

Modulating Nucleation by Kosmotropes and Chaotropes: Testing the Waters

1,2,3,* , 1,* and 1
Department of Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 10, University of Konstanz, Konstanz 78464, Germany
Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg 79104, Germany
Centre for Biosystem Analysis, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburg 79104, Germany
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 October 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological and Biogenic Crystallization)
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Water is a fundamental solvent sustaining life, key to the conformations and equilibria associated with solute species. Emerging studies on nucleation and crystallization phenomena reveal that the dynamics of hydration associated with mineral precursors are critical in determining material formation and growth. With certain small molecules affecting the hydration and conformational stability of co-solutes, this study systematically explores the effects of these chaotropes and kosmotropes as well as certain sugar enantiomers on the early stages of calcium carbonate formation. These small molecules appear to modulate mineral nucleation in a class-dependent manner. The observed effects are finite in comparison to the established, strong interactions between charged polymers and intermediate mineral forms. Thus, perturbations to hydration dynamics of ion clusters by co-solute species can affect nucleation phenomena in a discernable manner. View Full-Text
Keywords: crystallization; nucleation; kosmotropes; chaotropes; small molecules; hydration crystallization; nucleation; kosmotropes; chaotropes; small molecules; hydration

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rao, A.; Gebauer, D.; Cölfen, H. Modulating Nucleation by Kosmotropes and Chaotropes: Testing the Waters. Crystals 2017, 7, 302.

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